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2016年高考北京卷英语试题(解析版)

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绝密★启用前

本试卷共16页,共150分。考试时间为120分钟。考生务必将答案答在答题卡上,在试卷上作答无效。考试结束后,将本试卷和答题卡一并交回。
试题总评:
从整体上看难度略有提升,过渡较平稳。试题重点突出,命题思路清晰,重视对思维能力和全面文化素质的考察,强调交际运用。整套试卷很好地体现了语言教学的特色:既融语言及情感、又兼顾知识与能力。
一、分布并列二、体裁认同感的是第“equally important”及第五段段首的“moreover”等逻辑词可推知文章结构。
三、“地球日”系列活动属于保护环境的体裁内容,对于考生并不陌生。

第二部分:知识运用(共两节,45 分)
第一节单项填空(共 15 小题;每小题 1 分,共 15 分)
从每题所给的 ABCD 四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。
例:It’s so nice to hear from her again ________,we last met more than thirty years ago.
What’s more           B.That’s to say 
C.In other words           D.Believe it or not
答案是D。
21.Jackin the lab when the power cut occurred.
A.works   B.has worked   C.was working   D.would work
【答案】
考点:
 【名师点睛】
一、过去进行时的构成:was/were+动词的现在分词(--ing) 
二、过去进行时的用法:
1、表示在过去某时刻正在进行或发生的动作,通常与表过去的时间壮语连用。
例如:At this moment yesterday, I was packing for camp.
昨天这个时候,我正在收拾东西去露营。
2、表移动的动词,如come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return等词的过去进行时,可以表示过去将要发生的动作。
例如:She told me that she was going to Hainan for her holiday. 她告诉我她将去海南度假。
3、在含有时间状语从句的复合句中,表示一个过去的动作发生时或发生之后,另一个动作正在进行。
例如:It was raining when they left the station. 他们离开车站时,正下着雨。
  When I got to the top of the mountain, the sun was shining. 我到达山顶时,阳光灿烂。
4、在叙述或描写过去的事情时,过去进行时经常与其它过去时态,特别时是一般过去时连用。但是过去进行时往往是表示背景。
例如:One night, he was typing in his study. Suddenly, a man broke into his house and cut off the electricity
一天晚上,他正在书房里打字。突然,一个人闯进屋来,切断了电源
22.I live next door to a couple children often make a lot of noise.
A.whose   B.why   C.where   D.which
【答案】
【解析】
试题分析:
考点:
 【名师点睛】
定语从句的关系词分为关系代词(who, whom, whose, that, which, as 等)和关系副词(when, where, why等)
关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在从句中充当主语、宾语,定语等成分。关系副词可代替的先行词是表示时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。
eg. An architect is a person who / that designs houses and buildings.
	 The city where / in which I was born is on the new railway line.
关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。
关系代词在定语从句中作宾语时,关系代词可省略(非限定性定语从句中不可省略)。
eg. 	I find it difficult to cooperate with those who always stick to their own opinions.
I find it difficult to cooperate with the one who always sticks to his own opinion.
	The suit (which / that ) the tailor made for me doesn’t fit me.
3. 非限定性定语从句中,关系词均不可省略。注意关系代词that, 关系副词why, 不可用于非限定性定语从句。
作介词宾语的关系代词
在限制和非限制性定语从句中,关系代词作介词宾语,即介词+关系代词,whom用于指人,which用于指物,不能用that。
eg. The man with whom you shook hands just now is head of our department.
	Mrs. Nye, with whom you shook hands just now, is head of our department.
	The room in which my family live used to be a garage.
23.—Excuse me,which movie are you waiting for?
—The new Star Wars.Wehere for more than two hours.
A.waited   B.wait   C.would be waiting   D.have been waiting
【答案】
考点:

【名师点睛】
现在完成进行时由“助动词have/has been+ -ing形式”构成。用法如下:
1. 现在完成进行时表示过去的动作持续到现在并有可能延续下去的动作。常和for,since引导的时间状语连用。
-Hi, Tracy, you look tired. 
-I am tired. I have been painting the living room all day.
They have been living here for 10 years. 他们住在这里十年了。
2. 表示一个动作从过去某时开始,一直延续到说话时候刚结束。
I have been waiting you for about one hour.。(说话时"等"的动作刚结束)
She has been working all night long.
3. 表示重复(只断断续续,而非一直不停)
    We’ve been discussing the matter several times this year.
    I have been saying goodbye to some friends today.
【答案】
【名师点睛】
主语从句 Subject Clauses  (在主语的位置上)
从句的连接词可以是that, 也可以是特殊疑问词wh-
That he is a famous singer is known to us.= It is known to us that…
Whether we shall attend the meeting hasn’t been decided yet.
Who will go makes no difference.
It is known to us that he is a famous singer.
It is not yet fixed when he will go to America.
本题中,whatever引导主语从句,同时作do的宾语。
2. wh和ever 连用的词引导的名词性从句和状语从句的区别
区分使用wh-和wh-ever: wh 有疑问的意思;wh-ever有肯定强调的意思
*Who will be invited hasn’t been decided.
*Whoever comes here is welcomed.
*A reward of $1,000 will be given to whoever can provide any clues to the case.
*The gift will be given to whomever I like.
wh-ever 在引导名词性从句时不能用no matter wh-来替换,但在引导状语从句时可以替换
Whatever happened, he would not mind.
= No matter what happened, he……
考点:
25.Ihalf of the English novel,and I’ll try to finish it at the weekend.
A.read   			B.have read   			C.am reading   			D.will read
【答案】
考点:
 【名师点睛】
现在完成时基本用法
1、表示过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,常与already, yet, ever, never, just,before 等词连用。
例如:Have you ever cooked at home? 你吃晚饭了吗?
You have already grown much taller.你已经长高了许多。
2、表示过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态。往往和表示一段时间的时间状语连用,常用的有:for+一段时间;since+过去时间点或从句。(Since 用来说明动作起始时间,for用来说明动作延续时间长度),提问用How long.
例如:It has been five years since he joined the army .他参军五年了。
 They have learned English for eight years .他们已学了八年的英语了。
3、现在完成时需注意的问题:
○1表示短暂性的动词不能与表示一段时间的状语连用appear, begin, borrow, lend, buy, close,
come, die, fall, find, finish, join, kill, leave, sell, stop等。
例如:He has joined the army for five years. (错误)
He has been in the army for five years.(正确)
注意:非延续性动词的否定形式可以与表示延续时间的状语连用。即动作不发生的状态是可以持续的。
(错)I have received his letter for a month.
(对)I haven't received his letter for almost a month.
○2不能和明确的过去时间状语连用,如:yesterday, last week, in 1998,two days ago等。
○3have/has been to 和have/has gone to 的区别:
 have/has been to 
 have/has gone to 去了某地,在去的路上或已经在那里。
○4比较一般过去时与现在完成时
一般过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或状态,强调动作,不和现在发生联系,常与具体的过去时间状语连用,如yesterday, last week,…ago, in1980, in October, just now等,;现在完成时表示过去发生的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果,强调的是现在的情况,不能与表过去的时间状语连用。
I saw this film yesterday. (强调看的动作发生过了)
I have seen this film. (强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了)
Why did you get up so early? (强调起床的动作已发生过了)
He has been a League member for three years. (强调他是团员)
现在完成时考点分析
①现在完成时除可以和for、since引导的状语连用外,还可以和下面的介词短语连用:during / in /over the last(past)few years (months, weeks)、in recent years等。
②下列句型中常用现在完成时
It is (has been) + 一段时间 + since从句
This(That / It)is the first(second…)time that + 完成时
This(That / It)is the only … + that + 完成时
This(that / It)is the best / finest / most interesting … + that 从句 + 完成时
③在时间或条件状语从句中,现在完成时可以代替一般将来时。如:
I shall post the letter as soon as I have written it.
If you have done the experiment, you will realize the theory better.
Don’t get off the bus until it has stopped.
26.it easier to get in touch with us, you’d better keep this card at hand.
A. Made   				B. Make   				C. Making   			D. To make
【答案】
考点:
 【名师点睛】
一、不定式的作用
作主语:不定式作主语时,谓语用单数。往往用it 作形式主语,把不定式放在谓语后面。如:
It took us two hours to finish the job.
It is impossible for us to get there on time.
It is very kind of you to help us.
注意:(1)其他系动词如look, appear等也可用于此句型。
     (2)当不定式作主语的句子中又有一个不定式作表语时,不能用It is …to…的句型。试比较:
         It is to negate my own idea to believe him.(错)
         To believe him is to negate my own idea .(对)     
(3)It is+ adj. of / for sb. to do sth. 结构中,当不定式的逻辑主语和前面的形容词可以构成系表结构时,用of, 否则用 for.
作宾语
(1) 动词+不定式。如:
He managed to escape from the fire.
I find it hard to get along with him.(it 作形式宾语)
注:下列动词通常用不定式作宾语:want, try, hope, wish, need, forget, know, promise, refuse, help, decide, begin, start, learn, agree, choose, get等
动词+疑问词+to , “特殊疑问句+不定式”相当于名词,作宾语。如:
I don’t know what to do next/ how to do it next.
I can’t decide when to go there.
注意:不定式短语作宾语时,如果还带有宾语补足语,往往把不定式短语放在宾语补足语之后,用it 作形式宾语。如:
I find it necessary to learn a foreign language.
作宾语补足语
动词+宾语+不定式(to do )。如:
He warned me to be careful.
I want you to speak to Tom.
What makes you think so? (不带to的不定式)
     注:可以用动词不定式做宾补的动词有:ask, tell, order ,want ,get, would like, like, advise, invite, allow, help, wish, warn, expect, would prefer, encourage
表见解、看法的动词结构可为:动词+宾语+ to be 的不定式结构。如:
We consider Tom to be one of the best students in our class.
The book is believed to be useful.(被动语态)
(3) There +不定式。如:
We didn’t expect there to be so many people there.我们没料到会有那么多人在那里。
注意:(1)有些动词需用 as 短语作补语,像regard, think, believe, take, consider。如:
We regard Eric as our best teacher. 我们认为艾瑞克是我们最好的老师。
Mary took him as her father. 玛丽把他当作自己的父亲。
(4) 在动词feel (一感),hear, listen to(二听),have, let, make(三让),notice, see, watch, observe, look at(五看)(即:吾看三室两厅一感觉)等后面的补足语中,不定式不带to,但变为被动语态后,必须带to。如:
They saw the boy fall off the tree.      The boy was seen to fall off the tree.
(5) help后面作宾语补足语的不定式可以带to,也可以不带to.
   I often help him (to)clean the room.
   I helped him (to) find his things.
作定语
不定式作定语,修饰名词或代词,不定式和它所修饰的名词之间有逻辑上的主谓关系、动状关系、同位关系或动宾关系。不定式通常要放在这些被修饰的词后。如:
I have a lot of work to do.(动宾关系)
He is looking for a room to live in.(动状关系)
He is the first person to think of the idea.(主谓关系)
He has got a chance to go abroad.(同位关系)
注意:1.不定式的逻辑主语是句子的主语时,不定式用主动形式表被动。如:
        Do you have anything else to say?
      2.如果作定语的不定式是一个短语,则要保留不定式短语中的副词或介词。如:
        I need a pen to write with.  (I will write with the pen ) (我需要一支钢笔写字)
        I have a little baby to look after. (I must look after the little baby ) (我有一个婴儿要照看)
5. 作状语
作状语,表示目的、结果、原因等,有时还有一些固定搭配的不定式短语,如in order to , so as to, so…as to, such …as to, ….enough to, too…to等。
做目的状语,just to, only to (仅仅为了), in order to, so as to, so(such)….as to…(如此···以便···)如:
He ran so fast as to catch the first bus. 他飞快地跑以便赶上第一班车。
He came to the school to see his son.
作结果状语,表事先没有预料到的,要放在句子后面。如:
He hurried to the post office only to find it was closed.
He searched the room only to find nothing.
做原因状语。如:
We were very excited to hear the news.
I’m glad to see you.
做条件状语。如:
To turn to the left, you could find a post office.
6. 作表语
不定式可放在be动词后面,构成表语。如:
The question is how to put it into practice.
My question is when to leave.
His dream is to be a doctor.
Her work is to look after the babies.
注意:1.不定式在句中作表语时,对应的谓语动词用单数。
      2.当主语是不定式时,表语不能用V+ing形式,可用不定式。
       如:To see is to believe. (眼见为实)(Seeing is believing. )
7独立结构。如:
To tell you the truth, I don’t agree with you.
To make matters worse, it began to rain.
不定式的时态和语态
不定式的时态
现在时:有时与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生,有时发生在谓语动词的动作之后。如:
He seems to know this.    I hope to see you again.   
完成时:表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前。如:
I’m sorry to have given you so much trouble.
He seems to have caught a cold.
进行时:表示动作正在进行,与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生。如:
He seems to be eating something.
(4)完成进行时:表示动作从过去某个时间开始,一直延续到现在,并有可能持续下去。如:
She is known to have been working on the problem for many years.
不定式的语态
当不定式的逻辑主语是其动作的承受者时,就用被动式。如:
He was seen to enter the hall.      He asked to be sent to work in Tibet.
省to 的动词不定式
情态动词(除ought 外,ought to)
would rather, had better.
感官动词 see, watch, look at, notice, observe, hear, listen to, smell, feel 等后作宾补,省略 to.
注意:在被动语态中 to 不能省略掉。如:
I saw him dance.     
He was seen to dance.      
The boss made them work the whole night.
They were made to work the whole night.
使役动词 let, have, make.
由 and, or 和 than 连接的两个不定式,第二个 to 可以省去。如:He wants to move to France and marry the girl.
help 可带 to ,也可不带to, help sb. (to) do sth.
Why don’t you…/Why not…
but 和 except 前是动词 do 时,后面出现的动词用不带 to 的动词不定式。试比较:   
He wants to do nothing but go out.  
He wants to believe anything but to take the medicine.
通常在discover, imagine, suppose, think, understand 等词后,可以省去 to be .如:
He is supposed (to be) nice.  他应该是个好人。
【答案】
考点:
 【名师点睛】
1. 引导目的状语从句的从属连词。主要的有 in order that, so that, in case, for fear等。如:
He raised his voice so that everyone could hear.
他提高了嗓音,以便每个人都能听见。
Take your umbrella (just) in case it rains. 带上雨伞,以防下雨。
She repeated the instructions slowly in order that he should understand.
她把那些指示慢慢重复了一遍好让他听明白。
. 引导结果状语从句的从属连词。主要的有so that, so…that, such…that等。如:
I went to the lecture early so that I got a good seat.
我去听演讲去得很早, 所以找个好座位。
. 引导让步状语从句的从属连词。主要的有although, though, even though, even if, while, however, whatever, whoever, whenever, wherever等。如:
Although they are twins, they look entirely different.
他们虽是孪生, 但是相貌却完全不同。
. 引导方式状语从句的从属连词。主要的有as, as if, as though, the way等。如:
Why didn't you catch the last bus as I told you to?
你怎么不听我的话赶乘末班公共汽车呢?
. 引导地点状语从句的从属连词。主要的有where, wherever, everywhere, anywhere等。如:
The church was built where there had once been a Roman temple.
这座教堂盖在一座罗马寺庙的旧址。
. 引导比较状语从句的从属连词。主要的有than和as…as。如:
She was now happier than she had ever been.
现在她比过去任何时候都快活。
【答案】
考点:
 【名师点睛】
分词作状语
1. 分词作时间状语相当于when引导的时间状语从句;on doing sth. =as soon as。
2. 分词作原因状语相当于as,since,because引导的原因状语从句。
3. 分词作方式或伴随状语不能用状语从句替换,但是可以改写成并列句。
4. 分词作条件状语相当于if unless等引导的从句。常见的引导条件状语的分词有given,supposing, considering, provided, compared with等。
5. 分词作结果状语相当于so that引导的结果状语从句。分词前常有副词thus,thereby,only等。
6. 分词作让步状语相当于though或者even if等引导的让步状语从句。
【答案】
考点:
 【名师点睛】
表语从句 Predictive Clauses  (在be 后)
从句的连接词可以是that, 也可以是wh-的特殊疑问词
The fact is that she never liked him.
The question is whether the movie is worth seeing.
The question is who can complete the difficult task.
This/That/It is because …
I think it is because you are doing too much.
The reason why…is that…
The reason why the play is successful is that it appeals to many different people.
2. 只能用whether 的情况
*  在表语从句、主语同位语从句中
*  在介词后的宾语从句中
It all depends on whether they will support us.
*   在不定式之前
He doesn’t know whether to stay or not.
*   从句中有or not
He doesn’t know whether he should stay or not.

30.The students have been working hard on their lessons and their efforts______ success in the end.
A. rewarded                           B. were rewarded
C. will reward                         D. will be rewarded
【答案】
考点:
 【名师点睛】
一般将来时
①表示未来的动作或状态常用will / shall + 动词(常与表示将来的时间状语边用如tomorrow、next week等)。
②表示一种趋向或习惯动作。
We’ll die without air or water.
③表示趋向行为的动词如come、go、start、begin、leave等词常用进行时的形式表示将来时。
④be going to与will / shall, be to do, be about to do用法及区别:
A shall / will do表示未事先考虑过,即说话时临时作出的决定。
B be going to 表示现在打算在最近或将来要做某事,这种打算往往经过事先考虑,甚至已做了某种准备;
be going to 表将来,不能用在条件状语从句的主句中;而will则能,表意愿。如:
If it is fine, we’ll go fishing.(正确)
If it is fine, we are going to go fishing.(错误)
C be to do sth.表按计划、安排即将发生的动作,还可表示吩咐、命令、禁止,可能性等。
A meeting is to be held at 3:00 o’clock this afternoon.
D be about to do sth.表示“即将或者正要去做某事”,通常不与时间状语连用,但可与when引导的从句连用,构成常考句型:sb was about to do when sb did sth。
Autumn harvest is about to start.
被动语态的构成
	一般式	进行式	完成式		现在时	am/is/are+p.p	am/is/are+being+ p.p	have/has+been + p.p		过去时	was/were+ p.p	was/were+being+ p.p	had +been + p.p		将来时	shall/will+be+p.p		shall/will+have been+ p.p		注意:
含有情态动词的谓语变化为被动语态由“情态动词(can, may must, have to等)+be +动词的-ed形式。
含有“be going to , be to, used to, be about to”等结构的复合谓语变为被动语态其构成为“be going to (be to, used to, be about to)+ be +动词的-ed形式”。

【答案】
考点:
 【名师点睛】
 常用的情态动词有can,may,must,need,should, had better.
1. can 的用法:
   ① 表示能力  “能,会”      eg: He can speak a little Japanese.他会说一点日语。
   ② 表示请求或许可  “可以”  eg: Can I help you?  要我帮忙吗?  
   ③ 表示猜测       “可能”   eg: Where can she go now?  她可能到哪里去了呢? 
 2.may 的用法:
①表示请求或允许  “可以”“准许”   eg: May I go  home,please?请问我可以回家吗?  
   ② 表示可能性  “ 可能”、也许”  eg: I think it may rain this afternoon.  我想今天下午可能下雨。 
   注:might为may的过去式,但也可以代替may,语气较为婉转客气或更加不肯定。
   eg: ① He might not come today.今天他也许不来了。(语气不肯定)  
      ②You might also get a headache when you work too hard,当你工作太努力时,你也可能患头痛
3. must的用法:
     ①表示义务、必要或命令 “必须、应该”  eg: You must come early tomorrow.你明天得早来。 
     ② 表示推测时“肯定,一定” eg: They must be at home.The light is on 他们肯定在家,灯亮着呢.  
     ③ must not  禁止,不许      eg: You must not tell lies.  你不许撒谎。 
注意: ①must开头的疑问句,其否定回答通常用 don't have to 或needn't 。而不用mustn't 
         eg: ---Must I finish my homework first?  我必须先完成作业吗?
           ---No, you  don't have to/ needn't.     不,你不必。
          ②  can 和 must在 表推测时,can一般否定句中,而must 常用于肯定句中。
        eg: ①It can not be Li Lei 那个人不可能是李磊 
② It must be  Li Lei 那个人肯定是李磊。
4. need 的用法:
  ① 情态动词   “需要, 有必要”一般用于否定句或疑问句中。
    eg: You needn't come here this afternoon.你今天下午不必来。
  ② 行为动词  “需要, 有必要” 可以用于各种句式中。
eg:  ①You don't need to go now.  你不必现在就走。
 ② I need to have a rest. 我需要休息一下
      ③ Do we need to finish all the work today?  我们今天需要完成所有的工作吗?
need的用法的助记口诀:
实义动词表“需要”,后接名、代、不定式。    need后接动名词,主动形式表被动。
情态动词表“需要”,没有人称 数之变。        其后直接加动原,多用疑问与否定。

【答案】
【解析】
试题分析:
考点:
 【名师点睛】
现在分词和过去分词的区别:
在语态上,现在分词表示主动意义,过去分词表示被动意义;
在时间上,现在分词表示的动作往往正在进行或者与谓语动词同时发生,过去分词表示的动作已经完成或没有一定的时间性。
如:falling leaves 正在下落的树叶  fallen leaves 已经落在地上的树叶
分词的作用
作定语
单个分词作定语,分词前置。如:
The sleeping boy is my son.
The excited people rushed into the building.
A lost opportunity never returns.
He is a retired worker.
分词短语作定语,分词后置;分词修饰不定代词something等要后置;个别分词如give,left等作定语也后置。如:
The girl standing under the tree is my niece.
The building built last year is our library.
This is the question given.
There is nothing interesting.
过去分词作定语与其修饰的词是被动关系,相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。如:Most of the people invited to the party were famous scientists
2. The first textbook ______ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century.
A. have written      B. to be written     C. being written    D. written
3. What’s the language ______ in Germany?
A. speaking          B. spoken         C. be spoken     D. to speak
4. Prices of daily goods ______ through a computer can be lower than store prices.
A. are bought        B. bought         C. been bought   D. buying.
5. When I got back home I saw a message pinned to the door ______ “Sorry to miss you; will call later.”
A. read             B. reads           C. to read       D. reading
作状语
现在分词和过去分词在句中可以作时间、原因、方式、伴随、条件、结果等状语。
Not receiving any letter from him, I gave him a call.
As I didn’t receive any letter from him, I gave him a call.
Given more attention, the trees could have grown better.
If more attention was given, the trees could have grown better.(条件)
Walking along the street, I ran across my old friend.
Bitten by a snake, he was taken to hospital(原因).
Though defeated, he didn’t lose heart. (让步)
He lay on the grass, looking into the sky. (伴随)
He came running to tell me the good news. (方式)
6. ______ some officials, Napoleon inspected his army.
A. Followed    B. Followed by    C. Being followed    D. Having been followed
7. There was a terrible noise______ the sudden burst of light.
   A. followed     B. following     C. to be followed     D. being followed
8. ______, liquids can be changed into gases.
  A. Heating      B. To be heated     C. Heated          D. Heat
 注意:
选择现在分词还是过去分词,关键看主句的主语。如分词的动作是由主句的主语发出,分词就用现在分词,反之就用过去分词。试比较:
(Being)Used for a long time, the book looks old.由于用了很长时间,这本书看上去很旧。
Using the book, I find it useful.在使用的过程中,我发现这本书很有用。
分词作状语时,其逻辑主语必须和主句的主语一致,如果不一致,就用独立主格结构,即在分词前加上它的逻辑主语。现在分词的完成式主要用于作状语,一般不用作定语。
9. When______, the museum will be open to the public next year.
A. completed      B. completing     C. being completed    D. to be completed
10. ______ such heavy pollution already, the river becomes dead water.
A. Having suffered    B. Suffering     C. To suffer          D. Suffered
作表语
现在分词作表语多表示主语具有的特征,过去分词作表语多指主语所处的状态。如:
The film is touching.
The glass is broken.
She looked tired with cooking.
He remained standing beside the table.
作宾语补足语
分词和不定式一样,在一些感官动词或使役动词后作宾语补足语。如:
I smell something burning.
I heard him singing the song.
I heard my name called.
I can’t make myself understood in English.
I found my car missing.
I’ll have my watch repaired.我想把我的手表修一下。
作插入语
其结构是固定的,意思上的主语并不是句子的主语。
generally speaking 一般说来          talking of (speaking of) 说到
strictly speaking 严格地说            judging from 从···判断
all things considered 从整体来看      taking all things into consideration 全面看来。如:
Judging from his face, he must be ill.从他的脸色看,他一定是病了。
Generally speaking, dogs can run faster than pigs.总的来说,狗比猪跑得快。
二、分词的时态
与主语动词同时。如:
Arriving there, they found the boy dead. 
11. The secretary worked late into the night, ______ a long speech for the president.
A. to prepare      B. preparing      C. prepared      D. was preparing
先于主语动词
分词作时间状语,如果先于主动词的动作,且强调先后,要用having done。如:
Having finished his homework, he went out for a walk.
After he had finished his homework, he went out for a walk.
12. ______ a reply, he decided to write again.
A. Not receiving                  B. Receiving not                             
C. Not having received            D. Having not received

三、分词的语态
通常情况下,现在分词表示主动,过去分词表示被动。如:
He is the man giving you/who gave you the book 
She is the girl stopped by/who was stopped by the car. 
不及物动词的过去分词表示动作已经发生。像:gone, fallen, retired, grown-up, escaped, faded, returned等词。如:
a retired person 一个退休的人        a fallen ball 一个落下来的球
a burnt-out match 烧完了的火柴
【答案】
考点:
【名师点睛】
从属连词的用法
1. 引导时间状语从句的从属连词
(1) 表示“当…时候”或“每当”的时间连词。主要的 when, while, as, whenever。如:
Don't talk while you're eating. 吃饭时不要说话。
He came just as I was leaving. 我正要走时他来了。
(2) 表示“在……之前(或之后)”的时间连词。主要的有before, after。如:
Try to finish your work before you leave. 离开前设法把工作做完。
(3) 表示“自从”或“直到”的时间连词。主要的有since, until, till。如:
She's been playing tennis since she was eight. 她从八岁起就打网球了。
Never trouble trouble till trouble troubles you. (谚)不要无事惹事。
(4) 表示“一……就”的时间连词。主要的有as soon as, the moment, the minute, the second, the instant, immediately, directly, instantly, once, no sooner…than, hardly…when等。如:
I'll let you know as soon as I hear from her. 我一接她的信就通知你。
(5) 表示“上次”、“下次”、“每次”等的时间连词。主要的有every time(每次),each time(每次),(the) next time(下次),any time(随时),(the) last time(上次),the first time(第一次)。如:
I'll tell him about it (the) next time I see him.
我下一次见到他时,我就把这个情况告诉他。
注意:every time, each time, any time前不用冠词,(the) next time, (the) last time中的冠词可以省略,而the first time中的冠词通常不能省略。
2. 引导条件状语从句的从属连词。这类连词主要有if, unless, as [so] long as, in case 等。如:
Do you mind if I open the window?我开窗你不介意吧?
注意:在条件状语从句中,通常要用一般现在时表示将来意义,而不能直接使用将来时态。不过,有时表示条件的 if之后可能用 will,但那不是将来时态, 而是表示意愿或委婉的请求(will为情态动词)。如:
If you will sit down for a few moments, I'll tell the manager you're here. 请稍坐, 我这就通知经理说您来了。
. 引导原因状语从句的从属连词。主要的有because, as, since, seeing (that), now (that), considering (that) 等。如:
He distrusted me because I was new.
他不信任我,因为我是新来的。
【答案】
【解析】
试题分析:
【名师点睛】
英语中的三种语气,语气是动词的一种形式,用来说明我们对自己的话所采取的态度。
陈述语气(疑问,否定,肯定,感叹)
祈使语气(命令,要求,建议,警告)
虚拟语气:不可能发生的事,愿望,建议,与事实相反的假设等.

虚拟语气在条件中的具体用法
真实条件句
If you work hard,you’ll surely pass the exam.
虚拟条件句(假设情况不存在,实现机会很小)
If I were a bird, I could fly freely in the sky.
If it snowed tomorrow, we would stay at the home.
	if从句的谓语动词	主句谓语动词		1.与现在事实相反	动词过去式(be一律用were)	would/could/might/should+动词原形		2.与过去事实相反	had done 	would/could/might/should+have done		3.与将来事实可能相反	a.动词过去式(be一律用were)
b.should+动词原形(不能用would)
c.were to+动词原形	would/could/might/should+动词原形		
与现在事实相反
if从句:动词过去式(be---were)
主句:would/could/might/should+动词原形
If we had time, we would go with you.
If I were you, I shouldn’t do that.
If it weren’t raining, we wouldn’t stay.
与过去事实相反
if从句:had done
主句:would/could/might/should+have done
If the teacher hadn’t helped us, we couldn’t have succeeded.
I could have done it better if I had been more careful.
If he hadn’t been ill, he might have come.
3.与将来事实可能相反
if从句:a.动词过去式(be一律用were)
        b.should+动词原形(不能用would)
        c.were to+动词原形
主句:would/could/might/should+动词原形
If he came tomorrow, I would tell him everything.
If it should rain tomorrow, I would stay at home and watch TV.
If it were to snow tomorrow, they would not go out.
Should he come tomorrow, please give the book to him.
错综时间条件句
在虚拟语气中,有时条件从句动作发生的时间和主句动作发生的时间是不一致的,称为错综时间条件句。这种句子的形式往往要根据句子的时间相调整,分别处理。
If you had spoken to him yesterday, you would know what to do now.
If you had followed the doctor’s advice then, you would be all right now.
If you had watered them more, the crops would be growing still better now.
(有时时间会省略) 
含蓄条件句
有时虚拟条件不用if条件从句,而用介词或介词短语来表示。
They would not be able to live without him.(如果没有)
He would have failed but for his teacher’s timely advice.
(要不是)=if it had not been for
If only you had worked with greater care!(要是......就好了)
You would have done the same thing in her position.
With a little more care you could have avoid the traffic accident.

虚拟结合条件句
在虚拟语气中,假设的情况有时间可以通过上下文或其他方式表现出来,并且虚拟的情况和真实的情况同时存在。
I was ill that day. Otherwise, I would have taken part in the singing competition.
(实------虚)
=I was ill that day. If I hadn’t been ill that day, I would have taken part in the singing competition.
He would have bought the piano, but he didn’t have enough money.
(虚------实)
=He would have bought the piano if he had had enough money, but in fact he didn’t have enough money. 
 省略if倒装条件句
在虚拟语气中,if从句假设的情况中如果有助动词had, should和were,那么可省略if,把had, should和were放在句首构成倒装,简称省略if倒装条件句。
If he had finished the work yesterday, he would have gone to the concert with you.
 =Had he finished the work yesterday, he would have gone to the concert with you.
If I were you, I wouldn’t do that.
 =were I you, I wouldn’t do that.
If I should meet him, I would tell him about it.
 =Should I meet him, I would tell him about it.
考点:考查虚拟语气
35.I am not afraid of tomorrow, ______ I have seen yesterday and I love today.
A. so   B. and
C. for   D. but
【答案】
【名师点睛】
一、并列连词的用法1. 表示转折关系的并列连词。这类连词主要有 but, yet 等。如:Someone borrowed my pen, but I don't remember who.有人借了我的钢笔,但我不记得是谁了。2. 表示因果关系的并列连词。这类连词主要有 for, so 等。如:The child had a bad cough, so his mother took him to the doctor.这孩子咳得很利害,所以他妈妈带他去看医生。注意:for表示结果通常不能放句首,也不能单独使用。3. 表示并列关系的并列连词。这类连词主要有 and , or , either…or , neither…nor , not only…but (also) , both…and , as well as 等。如:He didn't go and she didn't go either. 他没去,她也没去。The weather is mild today; it is neither hot nor cold. 今天天气很温暖,不冷也不热。
考点:
第二节  完形填空(共 20 小题;每小题 1.5 分,共 30 分)
阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,从每题所给的 A、B、C、D 四个选项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上讲该项涂黑。
A Race Against Death
It was a cold January in 1925 in North Alaska. The town was cut off from the rest of the world due to heavy snow.
On the 20th of that month, Dr.Welch   36   a Sick boy, Billy, and knew he had diphtheria, a deadly infectious(传染的)disease mainly affecting children. The children of Nome would be  37  if it struck the town. Dr.Welch needed medicine as soon as possible to stop other kids from getting sick.   38  , the closest supply was over 1,000 miles away, in Anchorage.
How could the medicine get to Nome? The town`s  39  was already full of ice, so it couldn’t come by ship. Cars and horses couldn’t travel on the   40  roads. Jet airplanes and big trucks didn’t exist yet.
  41  January 26, Billy and three other children had died. Twemty more were   42  . Nome`s town officials came up with a(n)  43  . They would have the medicine sent by   44  from Anchorage to Nenana. From there, dogeled(狗拉雪橇)drivers—known as “mushers”—would   45  it to Nome in a relay(接力).
The race began on January 27. The first musher, Shannon, picked up the medicine from the train at Nenana and rode all night.  46  he handed the medicine to the next musher, Shannon`s face was black from the extreme cold.
On January 31,a musher named Seppala had to   47  a frozen body of water called Norton Sound .It was the most  48  part of the journey. Norton Sound was covered with ice,which could sometimes break up without warning.If that happened,Seppala might fall into the icy water below.He would  49  ,and so would the sick children of  Nome.But  Seppala made it across.
A huge snowstorm hit on February 1.Amusher  named Kaasen had to brave this storm.At one point,huge piles of sonw blocked his 50  .He had to leave the trail (雪橇痕迹)to get around them.Conditions were so bad that it was impossible for him to  51  the trail again. The only hope was Balto,Kaasen’s lead dog, Balto put his nose to the ground, 52  to find the smell of other dogs that had traveled on the trail.If Balto failed,it would mean disaster for Nome.The minutes passed by.Suddenly, Balto began to  53  .He had found the trail.
At 5:30 am on February 2, Kaasen and his dog  54  in Nome. Within minutes,Dr.Welch had the medicine.He quickly gave it to the sick children.All of them recovered.
Nome had been  55  .
36.A.examined    	B.warned        C.interviewed                 D.cured
37.A.harmless    	B.helpless  	C. fearless   			D.careless
38.A.Moreover   	B.Therefore  	C.Otherwise    		D.However
39.A.airport     	B.station  	C. harbor  			D.border
40.A.narrow  		B. snowy 	C.busy    			        D.dirty
41.A.From  	       B.On  		C.By   				D.After
42.A.tired 	       B.upset  		C. pale   			        D.sick
43.A.plan  	       B.excuse  	        C.message   			D.topic
44.A.air 			B.rail  		C. sea   				D.road
45.A.carry  		B.return  		C. mail  				D.give
46.A.Though 		B.Since  		C. When  			D.If
47.A.enter 	        B.move  		C. visit   			        D.cross
48.A.shameful 	B.boring  	C.dangerous                    D.foolish
49.A.escape  		B.bleed 		C. swim  				D.die
50.A.memory  	B.exit  		C.way  				D.destination
51.A.find  		B.fix  		C. pass  				D.change
52.A.pretending  	B.trying  		C. asking   			D.learning
53.A.run  		B.leave  		C. bite  				D.play
54.A.gathered 		B.stayed  		C. camped   			D.arrived
55.A.controlled	B.saved  	        C.founded   			D.developed
【答案】
.A
37.B
38.D
39.C
40.B
41.C
42.D
43.A
44.B
45.A
46.C
47.D
48.C
49.D
50.C
51.A
52.B
53.A
54.D
55.B
45. A考查动词辨析。A.carry运送,携带;B.return返回,归还;C. mail邮寄;D.give给。然后再由乘坐狗拉的雪橇的人把药物接力送到诺姆,故选A。
46. C考查时间状语从句。A.Though虽然;B.Since因为,自从;C. When当;D.If如果。当他把药物交给下一个人时,他的脸已经被冻得乌青,故选C。
47. D考查动词辨析。A.enter进入;B.move移动;C. visit拜访;D.cross穿过。根据“Norton Sound was covered with ice”可知,Norton Sound是一片冰冻的水域,Seppala必须穿过这片水域,故选D。
48. C考查形容词辨析。A.shameful惭愧的;B.boring令人厌烦的;C.dangerous危险的;D.foolish愚蠢的。根据“which could sometimes break up without warning”可知,这是旅途最难的一部分,故选C。
49. D考查动词辨析。A.escape逃跑;B.bleed流血;C. swim游泳;D.die死亡。如果掉进寒冷的水中,Seppala会被冻死,诺姆的病童们也会去世,故选D。
50. C考查名词辨析。A.memory记忆;B.exit出口;C.way道路;D.destination目的地。根据下一句可知,有的地方被大雪挡住了去路,Seppala不得不绕道行驶,故选C。

考点:类短文阅读

完型填空题的命题特点及答题方法:1.侧重基础知识,考查学生语言知识的能力完型填空以文入手,结合文章的内容考查学生的基础知识,主要是词语搭配、固定句型、近义词辨析、辨析句子结构、掌握语法规则的能力,其中考查实词居多。2.上下文对照,考查学生捕捉关键词的能力解完型填空题时,单独看一句话是找不到正确答案的,需要注意句子间的关系及句子与段落的关系。所谓上下对照,即在上文和下文中找到与正确答案相同的关键词。因此,在做题时要边读边在大脑中储存上下文信息的能力,捕捉关键词A.airport机场; B.station车站;C. harbor 港口;D.border边境。根据“so it couldn’t come by ship”可知,这里指港口结冰,故选C。3.设置语境,考查学生的分析推理能力旨在考查学生在选项都符合语法及句子结构的情况下能否利用前后语境去推断出正确答案。4.结合生活,考查学生利用常识题的能力目的考查学生的生活常识,看看学生是否善于观察生活,积累生活常识,能否利用常识去做恰当的选择。5.关注连词,考查学生对行文逻辑、句子关联的理解能力此项用来考查学生在缺少连词的情况想,通过阅读能否理解句子的与句子的关系,是否了解行文逻辑的要求,能否掌握表示因果、转折、并列、条件、让步等的连词的用法。A.Though虽然;B.Since因为,自从;C. When当;D.If如果。当他把药物交给下一个人时,他的脸已经被冻得乌青,故选C。
第三部分:阅读理解(共两节,20 分)
第一节(共 15 小题;每小题 2 分,共 30 分)
阅读下列短文:从每题所给的 A、B、C、D 四个选项中,选出最佳选项,将正确的选项涂在答题卡上。
A
Dear Alfred, 
I want to tell you how important your help is to my life.
Growing up, I had people telling me I was too slow, though, with an IQ of 150 at 17, I’m anything but stupid. The fact was that I was found to have ADIID(注意力缺陷多动障碍). Anxious all the time, I was unable to keep focused for more than an hour at a time.
However, when something did interest me, I could become absorbed. In high school, I became curious about the computer, and built my first website. Moreover, I completed the senior course of Computer Basics, plus five relevant pre-college courses.
While I was exploring my curiosity, my disease got worse. I wanted to go to college after high school, but couldn’t . So, I was killing my time at home until June 2012 when I discovered the online computer courses of your training center.
Since then, I have taken courses like Data Science and Advanced Mathematics. Currently, I’m learning your Probability course. I have hundreds of printer paper, covered in self-written notes from your video. This has given me a purpose.
Last year, I spent all my time looking for a job where, without dealing with the public , I could work alone, but still have a team to talk to. Luckily, I discovered the job—Data Analyst—this month and have been going full steam ahead. I want to prove that I can teach myself a respectful profession, without going to college, and be just as good as, if not better than, my competitors. 
Thank you. You’ve given me hope that I can follow my heart. For the first time, I feel good about myself because I’m doing something, not because someone told me I was doing good. I feel whole.
This is why you’re saving my life.
Yours,
Tanis
56.why did’t Tanis go to college after high school?
A.She had learned enough about computer science
B. She had more difficulty keeping foucesed
C.She preferred taking online courses
D.She was too slow to learn
57.AS for the working environment,Tains prefers____.
A .working by herself
B.dealing with the public
C.competing against others
D.staying with ADHD students
58.Tanis wrote this letter in order to_____.
A.explain why she was interested in the computer
B.share the ideas she had for her profession 
C .show how grateful she was to the center
D.describe the courses she had taken so far
【答案】
.B
57.A
58.C
考点:类短文阅读

细节理解题的类型:
1、直接信息题对此类题型,考生可以首先从问题中找到关键词,然后以此为线索,运用略读及查阅的技巧在文中迅速寻找这一细节,找到后再把这一部分内容仔细阅读一遍,仔细比较所给选项与文中细节的细微区别,在准确理解细节的前提下,最后确定最佳答案。56、57题都可以直接在文中找到有关信息。2、间接信息题做这类题目时,考生需要对原文信息进行加工处理,然后再进行进一步的推理或鉴别,这是介于事实细节题和推理判断题之间的一种题型,对考生来说有一定难度。3、数字计算题数字计算题也是近几年高考中常考的内容,此类试题是在文章中直接表现出来细节事实,有的要经过具体的计算才能够得出正确的答案。具体的计算题可以是对年代的计算、月份的计算或比例的计算等。文章中经常会出现许多数字,它们对解题产生一定的影响。解答此类试题的方法是先来理解文章的大意,然后经过对比、分析、计算等就能够得出正确的答案。4、排列顺序题这种试题要求考生根据事件发生的先后顺序和句子之间的逻辑关系,找出事件发生的正确顺序。做这种题时可采用“首尾定位法”,即最先找出第一个事件和最后一个事件,迅速缩小选择范围,从而快速选出正确答案。5、图表图画题在有图表图画的阅读理解中,有的图表图画出现在阅读理解文章中,有的出现在选项中,这些图片的出现增加了试题的直观性,同时也暗含着和文章内容相关的信息。在解答此类试题的时候,一定要把握图表图画中所暗含的信息,特别是有些事实是通过图片来叙述的,我们可以采用按图寻找正确答案的方法。
B
Surviving Hurricane Sandy(飓风桑迪)
Natalie Doan,14, has always felt lucky to live in Rockaway, New York. Living just a few blocks from the beach, Natalie can see the ocean and hear the wave from her house. “It’s the ocean that makes Rockaway so special,” she says.
On October 29, 2012, that ocean turned fierce. That night, Hurricane Sandy attacked the East Coast, and Rockaway was hit especially hard. Fortunately, Natalie’s family escaped to Brooklyn shortly before the city’s bridge closed.
When they returned to Rockaway the next day, they found their neighborhood in ruins. Many of Natalie’s friends had lost their homes and were living far away. All around her, people were suffering, especially the elderly. Natalie’s school was so damaged that she had to temporarily attend a school in Brooklyn.
In the following few days, the men and women helping Rockaway recover inspired Natalie. Volunteers came with carloads of donated clothing and toys. Neighbors devoted their spare time to helping others rebuild. Teenagers climbed dozens of flights of stairs to deliver water and food to elderly people trapped in powerless high-rise buildings.
“My mom tells me that I can’t control what happens to me,” Natalie says. “but I can always choose how I deal with it.”
Natalie’s choice was to help.
She created a website page matching survivors in need with donors who wanted to help. Natalie posted introduction about a boy named Patrick, who lost his baseball card collecting when his house burned down. Within days, Patrick’s collection was replaced.
In the coming months, her website page helped lots of kids: Christopher, who received a new basketball; Charlie, who got a new keyboard. Natalie also worked with other organizations to bring much-need supplies to Rockaway. Her efforts made her a famous person. Last April, she was invited to the White House and honored as a Hurricane Sandy Champion of Change.
Today, the scars(创痕)of destruction are still seen in Rockaway, but hope is in the air. The streets are clear, and many homes have been rebuilt. “I can’t imagine living anywhere but Rockaway,” Natalie declares. “My neighborhood will be back, even stronger than before.”
59.When Natalie returned to Rockaway after the hurricane ,she found______.
A.some friends had lost their lives
B.her neighborhood was destroyed
C.her school had moved to Brooklyn
D.the elderly were free from suffering
60.According to paragraph4,who inspired Natalie most?
A.The people helping Rockaway rebuild
B.The people trapped in high_rise building
C.The volunteers donating money to survivors
D.Local teenagers bringing clothing to elderly people
61.How did Natalie help the survivors?
A.She gave her toys to the kids
B.She took care of younger children
C.She called on the White House to help
D.She built an information sharing platform
62.What does the story intend to tell us?
A.Little people can make a big difference
B.A friend in need is a friend indeed
C.East or West,home is best
D.Technology is power
【答案】
.B
60.A
61.D
62.A


考点:类短文阅读
【名师点睛】
故事类文章是高考阅读理解常选材料之一。这类文章常通过叙述突出人物性格特征或讲述个人经历与感悟,以及逸闻趣事。文章的要素有时间、地点、人物、事件等。有些是按事件发展的经过为主线叙述的,在叙述的过程中有详有略;有些是按时间的顺序叙述的,有顺叙、倒叙等。解题技巧:1、高考选用的此类文章常常为幽默类或情感类故事,其目的或阐明某种观点,或抨击某种陋习,或赞扬某种品德,所以要关注作者表达的个人感悟,提出的个人意见,或故事中出其不意的变化,而这些往往体现文章中心或写作意图,属于必考点。2、该类文章语言流畅、有趣,命题往往从故事的情节、人物或事件之间的关系、作者的意图和态度、故事的前因和后果等方面入手,考查学生对细节的辨认能力以及推理判断能力。这类文章同学们常有文章易懂,题目不易做的感觉。要注意培养自己快速阅读的习惯。切不可在个别难懂的词句上停留太久,耽误时间。3、对整篇短文内容有了一定的了解后,要马上看短文后的问题,带着问题去选择或判断答案。要确定所需查找的信息范围,并注意所查找信息的特点。例如:如果问题或选项涉及到人名、地名,就应该找首字母大写的单词;如果问题或选项涉及时间、日期、数字,就应该寻找具体的数据。

铅中毒) nearly drove them to dying out. Now, electric shock training and medical treatment are helping to rescue these big birds.
In the late 1980s, the last few condors were taken from the wild, and there are now more than 150 flying over California and nearby Arizona, Utah and Baja in Mexico.

Electrical lines have been killing them off. “As they go in to rest for the night, they just don’t see the power lines,” says Bruce Rideout of San Diego Zoo. Their wings can bridge the gap between lines, resulting in electrocution(电死) if they touch two lines at once.
So scientists have come up with a shocking idea. Tall poles, placed in large training areas, teach the birds to stay clear of electrical lines by giving them a painful but undeadly electric shock. Before the training was introduced, 66% of set-freed condors died of electrocution. This has now dropped to 18%.
Lead poisonous has proved more difficult to deal with. When condors eat dead bodies of other animals containing lead, they absorb large quantities of lead. This affects their nervous systems and ability to produce baby birds, and can lead to kidney(肾) failures and death. So condors with high levels of lead are sent to Los Angeles Zoo, where they are treated with calcium EDTA, a chemical that removes lead from the blood over several days. This work is starting to pay off. The annual death rate for adult condors has dropped from 38% in 2000 to 5.4% in 2011. 
     Rideout’s team thinks that the California condors’ average survival time in the wild is now just under eight years. “Although these measures are not effective forever, they are vital for now,” he says. “They are truly good birds that are worth every effort we put into recovering them. ”
63.California condors attract researchers’ interest because they .
A.are active at night
B.had to be bred in the wild
C.are found on in California
D.almost died out in the 1980s
64.Researchers have found electrical lines are.
A.blocking condors’ journey home  
B. big killers of Califorbnia condoras
C. rest places for condors at night
D. used to keep condors away
65.According to Paraghaph 5 ,lead poisoning.
A.makes condors too nervous to fly      
B. has little effect on condors’ kidneys
C. can hardly be gotten rid of form condors’ blood
D. makes it different for condors to produce baby birds
66.The passage shows that .
A.the average survival time of condors is satisfactory
B.Rideout’s research interest lies in electric engineering
C.the efforts to protect condors have brought good results
D.researchers have found the final answers to the problem
【答案】
.D
64.B
65.D
66.C

考点:类短文阅读
自主性) and the development of adult identity. However, now they are becoming an extended period of adolescence, during which many of today’s students and are not shouldered with adult responsibilities.
For previous generations, college was decisive break from parental control; guidance and support needed help from people of the same age and from within. In the past two decades, however, continued connection with and dependence on family, thanks to cellphones, email and social media, have increased significantly. Some parents go so far as to help with coursework. Instead of promoting the idea of college as a passagefrom the shelter of the family to autonomy and adult responsibility, universities have given in to the idea that they should provide the same environment as that of the home.
To prepare for increased autonomy and responsibility, college needs to be a time of exploration and experimentation. This process involves “trying on ” new ways of thinking about oneself both intellectually(在思维方面) and personally. While we should provide “safe spaces” within colleges, we must also make it safe to express opinions and challenge majority views. Intellectual growth and flexibility are fostered on debate and questioning.
Learning to deal with the social world is equally important. Because a college community(群体) differs from the family, many students will struggle to find a sense of belonging. If students rely on administrators to regulate their social behavior and thinking pattern, they are not facing the challenge of finding an identity within a larger and complex community.
Moreover, the tendency for universities to monitor and shape student behavior runs up against another characteristic of young adults: the response to being controlled by their elders. If acceptable social behavior is too strictly defined(规定) and controlled, the insensitive or aggressive behavior that administrators are seeking to minimize may actually be encouraged.
It is not surprising that young people are likely to burst out, particularly when there are reasons to do so. Our generation once joined hands and stood firm at times of national emergency. What is lacking today is the conflict between adolescent’s desire for autonomy and their understanding of an unsafe world. Therefore, there is the desire for their dorms to be replacement homes and not places to experience intellectual growth.
Every college discussion about community values, social climate and behavior should include recognition of the developmental importance of student autonomy and self-regulation, of the necessary tension between safety and self-discovery.
67.What’s the author’s attitude toward continued parental guidance to college students?
A.Sympathetic                          B.Disapproving
C.Supportive                           D.Neutral
68.The underlined word “passage” in Paragraph 2 means.
A.change                              B.choice
C.text                                 D.extension
69.According to the author,what role should college play?
A.to develop a shared identity among students
B.to define and regulate students’ social behavior
C.To provide a safe world without tension for students 
D.To foster students’ intellectual and personal development
70.Which of the following shows the development of ideas in the passage?

【答案】
.B
68.A
69.D
70.C

考点:类短文阅读
【名师点睛】I.三类篇章结构题的出题方式
1. 结构识辨:
How is the text organized?
The author develops the passage mainly by________.
The text is mainly developed in the order of________.
Which of the following shows the structure of the passage? 
2. 组织结构功能: 此类组织结构题要求考生判断文章或段落组织结构的功能、作用,其常见的题干表述方式如下:
The author quoted …words in...paragraph in order to make the article________.
3. 结构推测: 此类组织结构题要求考生能够根据文章或段落的组织结构、行文方式或段落内容推测文章前后未呈现的写作内容。其常见的题干表述方式如下: 
What would the author probably discuss in the paragraph that follows?
Which of the following do you think has been discussed in the part before this selection?
II.解题策略
考查组织结构的文章通常行文组织结构都比较清晰、规范,因此具备文体、写作方式和文章组织结构方面相关知识对于有效解答此类题目具有至关重要的作用。
记叙文可以采取以时间为序、以地点为序、以故事情节发展为序(开端、发展、高潮、结局)等叙事方式进行写作。以故事情节为序又可以不按照时间的先后顺序叙述,比如,先写结局,再写其他, 最后写高潮,这种叙事手法叫做倒叙。
议论文总体上可以分为四类:
第一类,“提出论点——分论点一——分论点二——分论点三……——结论”;
第二类,“引入段——导出论点——分点论述——结论”;
第三类,“提出问题——分析问题——解决问题”;
第四类,“提出反面观点——批驳反面观点——提出正面观点”。
第二节(共 5 小题;每小题 2 分,共 10 分)
根据短文内容,从短文后的七个选项中选出正确的填入空白处。选项中有两项为多余选项。
The Science of Risk-Seeking
Sometimes We decide that a little unnecessary danger is worth it because when we weigh the risk and the reward, the risk seems worth taking.   71   Some of us enjoy activities that would surprise and scare the rest of us. Why? Experts say it may have to do with how our brains work.
The reason why any of us take any risks at all might have to do with early humans. Risk-takers were better at hunting, fighting, or exploring.    72    As the quality of Risk-taking was passed from on ration to the next, humans ended up with a sense of adventure and a tolerance for risk.
So why aren’t we all jumping out of airplanes then? Well, even 200,000 years ago, too much risk-taking could get one Killed. A few daring survived, though, along with a few stay-in-the-cave types. As a result, humans developed a range of character types that still exists today. So maybe you love car racing, or maybe you hate it.  73   
No matter where you are on the risk-seeking range, scientists say that your willingness to take risks increases during your teenage years.   74   To help you do that, your brain increases your hunger for new experiences. New experiences often mean taking some risks, so your brain raises your tolerance for risk as well.
Mean taking some risks, so your brain raisers your tolerance for risk as well.
 75  For the risk-seekers a part of the brain related to pleasure becomes active, while for the rest of us, a part of the brain related to fear becomes active.
As experts continue to study the science of risk-seeking, we’ll continue to hit the mountains, the waves or the shallow end of the pool.
A. It all depends on your character.
B. Those are the risks you should jump to take.
C. Being better at those things meant a greater chance of survival.
D. Thus, these well-equipped people survived because they were the fittest.
E. This is when you start to move away from your family and into the bigger world.
F. However, we are not all using the same reference standard to weigh risks and rewards.
G. New brain research suggests our brains work differently when we face a nervous situation.
【答案】
1.F
72.C
73.A
74.E
75. G

考点:类短文阅读
【名师点睛】
  1、先看选项。跟完形填空不一样,七选五的答案选项较少,并且给出的都是句子,因此,我们可以通过句子的完整性或者句子后面的标点符号来判断该句在文章中的位置。另外,通过阅读选项,有可能找出跟其他选项表达完全不同意思的句子,这样的话我们就可以直接将该选项排除。 
2、再看空前空后。由于七选五空出的是整个句子,而这些句子与句子之间,必然有一种联系,因此我们可以通过选项中某个名词或动词跟空前或空后的一致性或者相关性来确定这两个句子之间有一种关联性,从而选择正确的答案。   3、注意代词或定冠词。在做这类题目的时候,一定要注意句子中出现的人称代词或者指示代词,因为我们知道,代词是指代一个名词或者一个句子的,然后通过代词在句子中所做的成分我们可以推断出它指代的句子的类型,我们要做的就是从选项中找这类句型就可以了。   4、注意一些特殊疑问词。如果选项中或空前出现特殊疑问词,一定要把这句话仔细读几遍,因为对于不同特殊疑问词的回答方式是不一样的,比如对why的回答,后面要有because等表原因的词,对when的回答,后面要有表时间的状语,对where的回答,后面要有表地点的名词,对how的回答,后面要有方式状语等。  5、注意一些连词。如一些表示转折的连词,but,However,yet,though,nevertheless等,另外还有一些表示并列关系的连词如and,also,aswellas,neithernor,eitheror,notonly...butalso,ononehand....ontheotherhand等。因为这些连词可以表现句子与句子之间的关系,通过不同的连词我们可以推知句子与句子之间不同的关系。
第四部分:书面表达(共两节,35 分)
第一节(15分)
假设你是红星中学高三学生李华。你的英国朋友Jim 在给你的邮件中提到他对中国历史很感兴趣,并请你介绍一位你喜欢的中国历史人物。请你给Jim回信,内容包括:
1. 该人物是谁;
2. 该人物的主要贡献;
3. 该人物对你的影响。
注意:
1. 词数不少于50;
2. 开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数。
Dear Jim, 
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________
Yours,
Li Hua
【答案】

        It’s great to hear from you. I feel proud knowing your interest in Chinese history.
As for my favourite figure in Chinese history, it must be Wei Yuan, a great thinker in the late Qing Dynasty. He, in his book, Haiguo Tuzhi (Mps and Records of the World), introduced modern technologies and ideas to China. That opened our eyes to the world. In fact, he inspires me to major in English in college to be a bridge between China and the world.
        Interested in knowing more? I can find you some books! Just let me know.
        Cheers!
Yours,
Li Hua

考点:
【名师点睛】
题材偏向于信息介绍类的开放式写作,对于应用文格式的要求并不高,但对于语言组织和词汇积累的要求极高。本次应用文并没有限定考生必须写某一位历史人物,但是谈及人物的贡献和对自己的影响时,考生有可能会遇到大量的词汇障碍,故难度较去年明显提升。
第二节( 20 分)
假设你是红星中学高三一班的学生李华。你班同学参加了学校的“地球日”系列活动。请按照以下四幅图的先后顺序,以“Actions for a Greener Earth”为题,给校刊“英语角”写一篇英文稿件,介绍活动的全过程。
注意:词数不少于60。
提示词:地球日Earth Day


【答案】
Actions for a Greener Earth

      Our class came up with the idea to make better use of used materials. We brought to our classroom worn-out clothes, pieces of cardboard and empty plastic bottles and turned those into dolls, handbags, tissue boxes and small vases. That weekend, we went to a nearby neighborhood and gave them away to the people there. All were very happy with those unexpected gifts, especially little kids and elderly people. We did so well that we were invited to share our idea and experience with all the students of our school.
      We are very proud of ourselves and believe we can do more for a better world.
亮点说明:
考点:
【名师点睛】
话题比较常规,整体难度适中。“地球日”系列活动属于保护环境的体裁内容,考生并不陌生。内容主要包括:公告栏了解活动、分工制作、变废为宝的宣传活动、主题讲座等。一定要按照四幅图的顺序来写,不可打乱顺序;注意行文的连贯性,多使用一些连接词。















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