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2016年高考上海卷英语试题(解析版)

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绝密★启用前
  考生注意:
考试时间120分钟, 试卷满分150分。
本考试设试卷和答题纸两部分。试卷分为第I卷(第1-12页)和第II卷(第13页),全卷共13页。所有答题必须涂(选择题)或写(非选择题)在答题纸上,做在试卷上一律不得分。
答题前,务必在答题纸上填写准考证号和姓名,并将核对后的条形码贴在指定位置上,在答题纸反而清楚地填写姓名。
第I卷(共103分)
I. Listening Comprehension
Section A
Directions: In Section A, you will hear ten short conversations between two speakers. At the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was said. The conversations and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a conversation and the question about it, read the four possible answers on your paper, and decide which one is the best answer to the question you have heard.
1. A. It is satisfactory.             B. It is luxurious.
C. It is old-fashioned.           D. It is disappointing.
2. A. On August 5th.   B. On August 6th.   C. On August 7th.   D. On August 8th.
3. A. A waiter.   B. A butcher.   C. A porter.   D. A farmer.
4. A. In a theatre.   B. In a library.   C. In a booking office.   D. In a furniture store.
5. A. She expected to a better show.      B. She could hardly find her seat.  
C. She wasn’t interested in the show.   D. She didn’t get a favourable seat. 
6. A. The woman often eats out for breakfast.   B. The cafeteria serves good breakfast.
  C. The woman doesn’t have breakfast.       D. The cafeteria doesn’t serve breakfast.
7. A. Selling cucumbers.   B. Planting vegetables.  C. Cooking a meal.   D. Picking tomatoes.
8. A. The man should work hard.         B. The man should turn down the job offer.
  C. The man may have another chance.   D. The man can apply for the job again.
9. A. It is a hot and smoggy day.   B. There is a traffic jam on King Street.
  C. A vehicle is polluting the air.  D. The man is reading a report online.
10. A. Its ending is not good enough.   B. Its special effects are not satisfying.  
C. It deserves an award.          D. It is good except for the scary part.
Section B
  Directions: In Section B, you will hear two short passages, and you will be asked three questions on each of the passages. The passages will be read twice, but the questions will be spoken only once. When you hear a question, read the four possible answers on your paper and decide which one would be the best answer to the question you have heard.
Questions 11 through 13 are based on the following passage.11. A. $1.  B. $2  C. $3  D. $ 52.12. A. Pay the bills first.   B. Spend 2% of the salary on living expenses.   C. Deposit $1000 every month.   D. Put part of the money in a savings account.13. A. Methods of saving money.   B. Saving money for family emergencies.   C. The importance of saving money.   D. Secrets of spending money wisely.Questions 14 through 16 are based on the following passage.14. A. Free education. B. A sum of money.  C. Donations from a local newspaper.  D. Gifts from many people.15. A. Let students in before school.   B. Offer ice cream and coffee.   C. Introduce a bank into the campus.   D. Reduce the traffic jams around.16. A. It lacks positive news.   B. It should grow into a big city.   C. It is a place worth living in.   D. It remains peaceful and quiet.
Section C
   Directions: In section C, you will hear two longer conversations. The conversations will be read twice. After you hear each conversation, you are required to fill in the numbered blanks with the information you have heard. Write your answers on your answer sheet.
Blanks 17 through 20 are based on the following conversation.
Complete the form.  Write ONE WORD for each answer.
Class Diary (June 13-19)
SUN			MON	    17    for after-class activity application		TUE			WED	Handing in three student     18   		THU	Basketball Club meeting
Time:12:45—1:30pm       Place: The     19   		FRI	Filling in a form with up-to-date personal data
Time:    20    break      Place: The computer room		SAT			
Blank 21 through 24 are based on the following conversation.
Complete the form.  Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.

Who is Sue Walter?	She is     21    in court and a writer.		What is Sue’s suggestion for people with difficulties?	     22   		In Sue’s eyes, what is the best part about her job?	     23    in decision-making.		What does Sue think happiness is?	     24    		II. Grammar and Vocabulary
Section A
   Directions: After reading the passages below, fill in the blanks to make the passages coherent and grammatically correct. For the blanks with a given word, fill in each blank with the proper form. of the given word; for the other blanks, use one word that best fits each blank.
(A)
Bags of Love
  Last year, I was assigned to work at an office near my mother’s house, so I stayed with her for a month. During that time, I helped out with the housework and contributed to the groceries.
  After less than a week, I started noticing that the groceries were running out pretty quickly — we were always suddenly out of something. (25)_______(wonder) how my mum could consume them so quickly, I began observing her daily routine for two weeks. To my surprise, I found that she would pack a paper bag full of canned goods and head out every morning at about nine. Eventually, I decided to follow her and (26)_______ happened truly amazed me. She was taking the food to the refugee camp, in (27)______ she distributed it to children.
  I asked around and found out that my mum was very well known in the area. The kids were very friendly with her and even looked up to her as if she were their own mother. Then it hit me —why would she not want to tell me about what she (28)_____(do)? Was she worried about how I would react or that I would stop (29)_____(buy) the groceries if I found out?
  When she got home, I told her about my discovery. (30)_____ she could react, I gave her a big hug and told her she didn’t need to keep it a secret (31)______ me. She told me that some of the children lived with an older lady in a shelter while others slept on the streets. For years, my mum has been helping out by giving them whatever food she could spare. I was so impressed by (32)_____ selfless she was.
【答案】
25. Wondering    26. what  	27. which 	28. had done  	  29. buying    30. Before  	31. from       32. how  
【解析】
试题分析:25. Wondering   考查现在分词做状语。动词wonder与本句主语I构成主动关系,所以使用现在分词wondering在句中做状语。
26. what  		考查主语从句。本句中连接代词what引导主语从句what happened并在句中做主语。句意:发生的事情真让我很惊讶。
27. which 	考查定语从句。本题定语从句的先行词是the refugee camp,关系代词which指代先行词在定语从句中作为介词in的宾语,in which相当于关系副词where。
28. had done  	考查时态。根据上下文告诉我们“我”被派到妈妈家附近工作,这是过去发生的事情,而妈妈帮助难民是在我来这里工作之前就发生的事情,所以应该使用过去完成时表示过去的过去发生的事情。
抱着她并告诉她这件事情不必对我保密。
32. how 考查宾语从句。本句中表语从句how selfless she was作为介词by的宾语,因为selfless是形容词,所以使用how来引导这个从句,用法和感叹句类似。 
【名师点睛】
连词before最主要的含义为“在....之前”,但在不同的语境中有不同的翻译方法。本文中before意为“还没来得及...就.....”。
before作为连词其基本含义是“在……之前”,又可以根据不同语境灵活翻译成“才”、“还没来得及就……”、“趁……”、“就”等。具体用法如下:
  )与情态动词can/could连用
    这时候从句虽为肯定形式,根据汉语表达习惯译成“还没来得及就”,如:
    Before I could get in a word,he had measured me. 我还没来得及插话他就为我量好了尺寸。
    Before she could move,she heard a loud noise,which grew to a terrible roar.
    她还没来得及迈步,就听见一声巨响,接着就是可怕的隆隆轰鸣。
)用于肯定句中强调主句所表达的时间,距离长,或花费的精力大,译成“才”
    We had sailed four days and four nights before we saw lands.  我们航行了四天四夜才看到陆地。
    We waited a long time before the train arrived. 我们等了很长时间火车才到。
  )用于否定句中,强调主句所表达的时间,距离短,或花费的精力小,译成“不到……就”如:
    We hadn‘t run a mile before he felt tired.我们跑了还不到一英里他就累了。
 )主句含有hardly,scarcely等半否定副词时可以译为“刚……就”
    这时候主句应用过去完成时态,从句用过去时,还可以用when替代before如:
    We had scarcely reached the school before/when the bell rang.    我们刚到学校铃声就响了。
 )有时还有“宁愿”的意思
    I‘d shoot myself before I apologized to him.我宁死也不向他道歉。
  )用于It +be/take+时间段+before句型
    在这一句型中又可以根据主从句的时态分成两种情况。
    若主句是一般时将来时态,从句是一般现在时.若主句是肯定句意思是“要过多长时间才”;若主句是否定形式翻译成“用不了多久就”。
    It will be two weeks before everything returns to normal.  两周之后一切才能恢复正常。
    It will be many years before the situation improves.    这种状况或许要过许多年才能得以改善。
    It won‘t be long before we meet again.用不了多久我们就会再见面的。
这时若主句是一般过去时从句也是一般过去时。若主句是肯定句翻译成“多长时间之后才”,若主句是否定形式翻译成“没过多久就”。如:        It was some time before I realized the truth.    过了很长一段时间我才了解到真相。
    It wasn‘t long before she became a brave solider.    没过多久她就成了一名勇敢的战士。
    After that it still took seven years before they got married.    他们又过了七年才结婚。
考点:

(B)
Stress: Good or Bad?
  Stress used to be an almost unknown word, but now that we are used to talking about it, I have found that people are beginning to get stressed about being stressed.
  In recent years, stress(33)______(regard) as a cause of a whole range of medical problems, from high blood pressure to mental illness. But like so many other things, it is only too much stress(34)______ does you harm. It is time you considered that if there were no stress in your life, you would achieve a little. If you are stuck at home with no stress, then your level of performance will be low. Up to a certain point, the more stress you are under, the (35)_____(good) your performance will be. Beyond a certain point, though , further stress will only lead to exhaustion, illness and finally a breakdown. You can tell when you are over the top and on the downward slope, by asking yourself (36)_______ number of questions. Do you, for instance, feel that too much is being expected of (37)______, and yet find it impossible to say no? Do you find yourself getting impatient or(38) _____(annoy) with people over unimportant things?... If the answer to all those questions is yes, you had better(39)______(control ) your stress, as you probably are under more stress than is good for you.
  To some extent you can control the amount of stress in your life. Doctors have worked out a chart showing how much stress is involved in various events. Getting married is 50, pregnancy 40, moving house 20, Christmas 12,etc. If the total stress in your life is over 150, you are twice as likely (40)_______ (get )ill.
【答案】
33. has been regarded   34. that   35. better   	36. a  	37. you  	38. annoyed  	39. control   40. to get
【解析】
试题分析:33. has been regarded  考查时态语态。本句的时间状语是in recent years最近几年以来,该时间状语通常和现在完成时连用,且句子主语stress与动词regard构成被动关系,所以使用现在完成时的被动语态形式has been regarded。
34. that  考查强调句型。强调句型的基本结构为It is/was被强调成分that/who其它成分;其最大的特点38. annoyed  考查形容词。形容词annoyed恼怒的,该词是由过去分词转换而来的形容词,通常修饰人。本句中该词和impatient构成并列关系一起和系动词get构成系表结构。
39. control 考查固定搭配。动词短语had better do sth最好做某事;“had better”是情态动词,后面要接动词原形。
 40. to get 考查形容词短语。形容词短语be likely to do sth可能做某事;句意:如果你生活中的压力超过150,你就非常有可能生病了。
【名师点睛】
本文考查了强调句型的用法。强调句是一种修辞方法,是人们为了表达自己的意愿或情感而使用的一种形式:
强调句型:“It is(was)+被强调的部分+that(who)+原句其它部分”来强调说话人的意愿:  
It was on Monday night that all this happened.所有这一切发生在周一晚上。  
It’s me that he blamed.他怪的是我。  
强调句型最重要的句型是: It is (was) + 被强调部分+ that/ who + 句子的其它成份 。
英语中许多句子常常可以通过强调句型对句子的不同成份进行强调。如:  
It is they who /that will have a meeting tomorrow. (强调主语) 
It is a meeting that they will have tomorrow. (强调宾语)
 It is tomorrow that they will have a meeting. (强调时间状语)  
应注意的要点: 
1.强调句型可以用来强调主语、宾语(包括介词宾语)和状语。其中的it 本身没有词义。 
2.强调句中的连接词一般只用who(指人)或that(可指物,也可指人),若被强调的是状语,也只能用that ,而不能用when 或者where。而且连接词都不能省略。如: It was in the park that he met an old friend yesterday. (虽然强调的是地点,但不能用where。) 
3.强调句子的主语时,that 或who 之后的谓语动词的人称和数要与它前面被强调的名词或代词一致。如:  
It is Mary and Tom who often do good deeds. 
4.强调句型的时态常见的有两种:一般现在时和一般过去时。
即It is ... that/who...和It was ...that/who...。
如:  It was the way he asked that really upset me.  
5.判断一个句子是否是强调句的方法是:如果将句中的It is/was...that/who...去掉,经整理后还是一个完整的句子,本句就是强调句。否则,就不是。
如:  It was in today's newspaper that we found the news. 
去掉It was ...that 之后,句子可以整理为:We found the news in today's newspaper. 
这是一个完整的句子,故本句是强调句。  
常见考法: 
1.用介词短语来作为被强调的部分。如:  
It was for this reason that he left that school.  
It was in this way that he solved the problem.  
2.用时间状语从句、条件状语从句等作为被强调的部分。如:  
It was only when I reread his poems that I began to appreciate their beauty. 
3.用 not until 复杂结构作为被强调的部分。如:  
It was not until she took off her dark glasses that I realized she was a film star. 
It was not until 1920 that regular radio broadcasts began. 
4.在被强调的部分后接定语从句,使句子结构更加复杂。如:  
It was on July 7th 1975 when he was born that his father died.  
5.通过句型转换来进行考查。如把肯定句改成一般疑问句或特殊疑问句,或把肯定句改成否定句或否定疑问句等。如: 
Was it during the Second World War that he died? 
When was it that the sports meeting began?
 It was not Tom that stole the book. 
Wasn't it he that had made a mistake? 
6.通过改变系动词的形式来进行考查。强调句型的系动词除了用 is 或 was外 ,还可以在其前面加上 may / might /must 等表示推测的情态动词。
如: It might be him that you met yesterday.
考点:

Section B
   Directions: Complete the following passage by using the words in the box. Each word can only be used once. Note that there is one word more than you need.

A. account  B. adjustable  C. appliances  D. capture  E. decorations  F. direct  
G. experiment  H. intended  I. operated  J. soulless  K. squeeze		Golden Rules of Good Design
What makes good design? Over the years, designers and artists have been trying to   41     the essentials of good design. They have found that some sayings can help people understand the ideas of good design. There are four as follows.
Less is more. This saying is associated with the German-born architect Mies van der Rohe. In his Modernist view, beauty lies in simplicity and elegance, and the aim of the designer is to create solutions to problems through the most efficient means. Design should avoid unnecessary   42  
   More is not a bore. The American-born architect Robert Venturi concluded that if simplicity is done badly, the result is   43  design. Post-Modernist designers began to   44   with decoration and color again. Product design was heavily influenced by this view and can be seen in kitchen    45   such as ovens and kettles.
   Fitness for purpose. Successful product design takes into consideration a product’s function, purpose, shape, form, color, and so on. The most important result for the user is that the product does what is    46   . For example, think of a(n)   47   desk lamp. It needs to be constructed from materials that will stand the heat of the lamp and regular adjustments by the user. It also needs to be stable. Most importantly, it needs to    48   light where it is needed.
   From follows emotion. This phrase is associated with the German designer Hartmut Esslinger. He believes design must take into    49   the sensory side of our nature—sight, smell, touch and taste. These are as important as rational(理性的). When choosing everyday products such as toothpaste, we appreciate a cool-looking device that allows us to easily    50   the toothpaste onto our brush.
【答案】
41. D   42.E   43.J   44.G   45.C   46.H   47.B   48.F   49.A   50.K
【解析】
试题分析:41. D  动词capture获得;捕获;本句中该词构成的不定式短语“to capture.....”作为动词try的宾语。句意:多年以来,设计师和艺术家一直都在努力搞清楚好的设计的本质。
42.E  名词decorations 装饰,该词在句中作为动词avoid的宾语。本段的主题是“Less is more”倡导装修设计的简单化。句意:设计应该避免不必要的装饰物。      
43.J  形容词soulless 没有灵魂的;该词在本句中做定语修饰名词design。根据前半句“The American-born architect Robert Venturi concluded that if simplicity is done badly...”可知美国建筑家Robert Venturi总结过,如果简约没有做好,那么这样的设计就是没有灵魂的;
44.G  动词短语experiment with试用,用...做实验;句意:后现代主义设计师们再一次开始试验装饰和颜色。
45.C  名词appliance电器,电器工具;该词可由后面列举的例子“ovens and kettles烤箱和水壶”推理,指厨房电器等物品。
46.H  形容词intended预期的;本句中该词和系动词is构成系表结构。句意:对用户来说最重要的是产品达到了预期的效果。
47.B  形容词adjustable可调节的;本句中该词作为定语修饰名词desk lamp,意为“可调节的台灯”,与后句【名师点睛】
在选词填空中,很重要的一点就是要确认空格词的词汇。下面给大家一些确认空格词词性的小规律:
1. 确定空格为名词
(1)如果空格前面为冠词a /an/the、形容词或者及物动词.,空格处应填入名词;
(2)如果空格前面是介词,空格充当该介词的宾语,需填入一个名词。 
(3)如果空格后面是谓语动词的,且空格前没有句子主语,空格处应填入该动词的主语(名词); 2. 确定空格为动词
(1)如果空格前面已经有名词或代词做主语,后面又有名词或代词作为动词的宾语,且中间无谓语动词,空格处应为及物动词;F  动词direct对准,指挥;
(2)如果空格处前面是be动词,后面又无宾语且句意为被动,空格中应填及物动词的过去分词;(3)如果空格前面是名词或代词做主语,后面没有宾语或有一个介词加宾语
(4)如果空格处前面是名词或代词做主语,后面是形容词,空格应填入系动词或be动词;
(5)如果空格处前有不定式标志to,空格处应填入动词原形;另一种情况to是介词,后面应填入动名词。
3. 确定空格为形容词
(1)如果空格后面为名词的,空格处可能填入形容词;47.形容词adjustable可调节的
(2)如果空格处前面是副词的,空格处可能填入形容词;
(3)如果空格处前面是系动词或be动词的,空格处可能填入形容词作表语。46.形容词intended预期的;
4. 确定空格为副词
(1) 如果空格处前面或者后面为动词的,空格处可能填入副词。
(2) 如果空格处后面是形容词的,空格处可能填入副词。
考点:

III. Reading Comprehension
Section A
    Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context.
In the 1960s, Douglas McGregor, one of the key thinkers in the art of management, developed the mow famous Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X is the idea that people instinctively   51   work and will do anything to avoid it. Theory Y is the view that everyone has the potential to find satisfaction in work.
In any case, despite so much evidence to the   52  , many managers still agree to Theory X. They believe,   53   , that their employees need constant supervision if they are to work effectively, or that decisions must be imposed from   54   without consultation. This, of course, makes for authoritarian (专制的) managers.
Different cultures have different ways of   55   people. Unlike authoritarian management, some cultures, particularly in Asia, are well known for the consultative nature of decision-making—all members of the department or work group are asked to   56   to this process. This is management by the collective opinion. Many western companies have tried to imitate such Asian ways of doing things, which are based on general   57  . Some experts say that women will become more effective managers than men because they have the power to reach common goals in a way that traditional   58   managers cannot.
A recent trend has been to encourage employees to use their own initiative, to make decisions on their own without   59   managers first. This empowerment (授权) has been part of the trend towards downsizing:   60   the number of management layers in companies. After de-layering in this way, a company may be   61   with just a top level of senior managers, front-line managers and employees with direct contact with the public. Empowerment takes the idea of delegation (委托) much further than has   62   been the case. Empowerment and delegation mean new forms of management control to   63   that the overall business plan is being followed, and that operations become more profitable under the new organization, rather than less.
Another trend is off-site or   64   management, where teams of people linked by e-mail and the Internet work on projects from their own houses. Project managers evaluate the   65   of the team members in terms of what they produce for projects, rather than the amount of time they spend on them.
51. A. desire			B. seek				C. lose				D. dislike   
52. A. contrary			B. expectation			C. degree				D. extreme  
53. A. vice versa		B. for example			C. however			D. otherwise
54. A. outside			B. inside				C. below				D. above 
55. A. replacing		B. assessing			C. managing			D. encouraging  
56. A. refer			B. contribute			C. object				D. apply
57. A. agreement		B. practice			C. election			D. impression
58. A. bossy			B. experienced			C. western			D. male  
 59. A. asking			B. training			C. warning			D. firing 
60. A. doubling		B. maintaining			C. reducing			D. estimating 
61. A. honored		    B. left				C. crowded			D. compared
62. A. economically	B. traditionally		C. inadequately		D. occasionally 
63. A. deny			B. admit				C. assume			D. ensure
64. A. virtual			B. ineffective			C. day-to-day			D. on-the-scene
65. A. opinion			B. risk				C. performance		D. attractiveness
【答案】51. D   	52. A   	53. B   	54. D   	55. C   	56. B   	57. A   	58. D   	59. A   	60. C 61. B   	62. B   	63. D   	64. A   	65. C   	
【解析】
试题分析:道格拉斯·麦克雷戈人性假设理论will do anything to avoid it”可知很多人为了避免工作而愿意做任何事情,说明那些人大多数人生性都是懒惰的,他们尽可能地逃避工作。contrary相反的;to the degree在某种程度上;to the extreme走向极端;在文章第一段中提到了X理论,大多数人都缺乏进取心和责任心,不愿对人和事负责,没有什么雄心壮志,不喜欢负责任,宁可被领导。大多数人愿意对工作、对他人负责,人们愿意实行自我管理和自我控制来完成应当完成的目标。makes for authoritarian managers....”可知这属于专制的管理方法,他们的决定是来自上而下的,没有任何商量的余地。故D项“above上面的”正确。
55.C 考查上下文串联。根据前段可知本文讨论的管理学的理论,使用本句使用动词“manage管理”,不同的文化中有不同的管理人的方法。而且和下文中亚洲、西方的管理方法形成呼应。故C正确。
56.B 考查动词短语辨析。短语refer to提到,谈到;contribute to做贡献;导致;object to反对;apply to适用于;亚洲人使用的是协商式的管理方法,所有人都被要求对管理的过程做出自己的贡献。故B正确。
57.A 考查上下文串联。名词agreement同意;practice练习,做法;election选举;impression印象;亚洲人使用协商式的管理方法,这种方法是建立在共同的协议基础之上的,西方人也想学习这样的管理方法。故A正确。
58.D 考查上下文串联。根据前半句“....women will become more effective managers than men....”可知有些专家认为女性比男性管理更高效。因为女性更有亲和力,比男性管理人更容易与别人达成一致的目标。故D正确。
59.A 考查上下文串联。根据前句“... encourage employees to use their own initiative...鼓励员工使用自己的首创精神”,也就是说在做出决定的时候不要请示上级经理,自己做出决定即可。故A项正确。
型的管理方法,与传统的管理模式不一样。故B正确。
63.D 考查动词辨析。动词deny否认;admit承认;assume假定,设想;ensure保证,确保;授权管理是一种新型的管理方法,省略了中央管理环节,保证了整个商业计划被采用。根据句意可知D正确。
64.A 考查上下文串联。形容词virtual虚拟的;ineffective低效的;day-to-day日常的;on-the-scene现场的;根据后句“where teams of people linked by e-mail and the Internet work on projects from their own houses”可知在这种新型的管理方法中,人们都是通过邮件和网络联系,说明这种一种新型通过虚拟网络进行的管理方法。故A正确。
65.C 考查名词辨析。名词opinion观点;risk冒险;performance表现;attractiveness魅力;根据后半句中“
in terms of what they produce for projects, rather than the amount of time they spend on them”可知我们评价员工的表现是根据他们的产品而不是工作的时间。故C项正确。
【名师点睛】
  本篇完形填空对于上下文串联及词汇的复现进行了集中考查,占到了三分之二。由于完形填空的文章是一个意义相关联的语篇,围绕一个话题论述,因此在行文中词语的重复、替代、复现和同现现象是不可避免的。根据这个原则,某一个空格所对应的答案很可能就是在上下文中复现或同现的相关词,考生可以根据这些词之间的有机联系来确定答案。所以,解题时应联系上下文寻找相关线索,如某一个词的原词、指代词、同义词、近义词、上义词、下义词和概括词等。但由于我们在做题时不可能总是重复地阅读文章,因此,在做完形填空时要培养一种捕捉并记忆相关信息的能力。
  如本文57题考查上下文串联。亚洲人使用协商式的管理方法,这种方法是建立在共同的协议基础之上的,西方人也想学习这样的管理方法。故A项名词“agreement同意、协议”正确。
考点:

Section B
Direction:Read the following three passages. Each passage is followed by several questions or unfinished sattments. For each of them there are four choices markedA, B, C and D. Choose the one that fits best according to the information given in the passage you have just read.
(A)
   One early morning, I went into the living room to find my mother reading a thick book called Best Loved Poems to Read Again and Again. My interest was aroused only by the fact that the word “Poems” appeared in big, hot pink letters.
  “Is it good?” I asked her.
  “Yeah,” she answered. “There’s one I really like and you’ll like it, too.” I leaned forward.
  “‘Patty Poem,’” she read the title. Who is Patty? I wondered. The poem began:
She never puts her toys away,
                   Just leaves them scattered① where they lay,…      ①散乱的
  
The poem was just three short sections. The final one came quickly:
  
                     When she grows and gathers poise②,         ②稳重
                        I’ll miss her harum-scarum③ noise,         ③莽撞的
                        And look in vain④ for scattered toys.        ④徒劳地
And I’ll be sad.                 
  A terrible sorrow washed over me. Whoever Patty was, she was a mean girl. Then, the shock.
  “It’s you, honey,” My mother said sadly.
  To my mother, the poem revealed a parent’s affection when her child grows up and leaves. To me, the “she” in the poem was horror. It was my mama who would be sad. It was so terrible I burst out crying. 
  “What’s wrong?” my mother asked.
  “Oh Mama,” I cried. “I don’t want to grow up ever!”
  She smiled. “Honey, it’s okay. You’re not growing up anytime soon. And when you do, I’ll still love you, okay?”
  “Okay,” I was still weeping. My panic has gone. But I could not help thinking about that silly poem. After what seemed like a safe amount of time, I read the poem again and was confused. It all fit so well together, like a puzzle. The language was simple, so simple I could plainly understand its meaning, yet it was still beautiful. I was now fascinated by the idea of poetry, words that had the power to make or break a person’s world.
  I have since fallen in love with other poems, but “Patty Poem” remains my poem. After all, “Patty Poem” gave me my love for poetry not because it was the poem that lifted my spirits, but because it was the one that hurt me the most.
66. Why was the writer attracted by the book Best Loved Poems to Read Again and Again?
   A. It was a thick enough book.
   B. Something on its cover caught her eye.
   C. Her mother was reading it with interest.
   D. It has a meaningful title.
67. After her mother read the poem to her, the writer felt ______ at first.
   A. sad       B. excited      C. horrified      D. confused
68. The writer’s mother liked to read “Patty Poem” probably because______.
   A. it reflected her own childhood
   B. it was written in simple language
   C. it was composed by a famous poet
   D. it gave her a hint of what would happen
69. It can be concluded from the passage that“Patty Poem”leads the writer to _______.
  A. discover the power of poetry
  B. recognize her love for puzzles
  C. find her eagerness to grow up
  D. experience great homesickness
【答案】66. B  	 67. A   	68. D   	69. A   	
【解析】
69.A 推理判断题。根据文章最后一段“I have since fallen in love with other poems, but “Patty Poem” remains my poem. After all, “Patty Poem” gave me my love for poetry not because it was the poem that lifted my spirits, but because it was the one that hurt me the most.”可知这首诗让作者感受了诗歌的美,让作者爱上了诗歌,这首因为她发现诗歌有强烈的情感冲击力。故A项正确。
【名师点睛】
本文属于判断推理题中的人物性格、心情处境、态度及观点等推断题 
高考阅读测试中有些题目考查学生对文章作者的主导思想、被描写人物语气、言谈话语中流露的情绪、性格倾向和作用或文中人物的态度、观点等方面的理解。做这一类题时一定注意: 
(1)由表及里地准确把握字里行间的意思,切勿用自己的主观想法或观点代替作者的思想观点。 
(2)特别注意那些描写环境气氛的语言,以及表达感情,态度观点的词语。要特别注意作者在文章中的措辞,尤其是感情色彩的形容词。 
(3)能结合自己平时积累的有关英语国家的文化传统、风俗习惯等背景知识来识别评价。
以为例,根据文章最后一段“I have since fallen in love with other poems, but “Patty Poem” remains my poem. After all, “Patty Poem” gave me my love for poetry not because it was the poem that lifted my spirits, but because it was the one that hurt me the most.”可知这首诗让作者感受了诗歌的美,让作者爱上了诗歌,这首因为她发现诗歌有强烈的情感冲击力。
考点:
(B)
   Is there link between humans and climate change or not? This question was first studied in the early 1900s. Since then, many scientists have thought that our actions do make a difference. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol explained our role in the Earth’s changing atmosphere and set international limits for gas emissions(排放) from 2008 to 2012. Some countries have decided to continue these reductions until 2020. More recently, the Paris Agreement, stuck by nearly 200 countries, also aims to limit global warming. But just now how much warmer it will get depends on how deeply countries cut carbon emissions.
  3.5℃
This is how much temperatures would rise by 2100 even if nations live up to the initial Paris promises to reduce carbon emissions; this rise could still put coastal cities under water and drive over half of all species to extinction.


2℃
To meet this minimum goal, the Agreement requires countries to tighten emissions targets every five years. Even this increase could sink some islands, worse drought(干旱) and drive a decline of up to a third in the number of species.


  1.5℃
This is the most ambitious goal for temperature rise set by the Paris Agreement, after a push by low-lying island nations like Kiribati, which say limiting temperature rise to 1.5℃ could save them from sinking.


  0.8℃
This is how much temperatures have risen since the industrial age began, putting us 40% of the way to the 2℃ point.


0℃
The baseline here is average global temperature before the start of the industrial age.


70. It can be concluded from paragraph 1 that _______.
A. the problem of global warming will have been quite solved by 2020
B. gas emissions have been effectively reduced in developed countries
C. the Paris Agreements is more influential than the Kyoto Protocol
D. humans have made continuous efforts to slow down global warming
71. If nations could only keep the initial promises of the Paris Agreement, what would happen by the year 2100?
A. The human population would increase by one third.
B. Little over 50% of all species would still exist.
C. Nations would not need to tighten their emissions targets.
D. The Agreement’s minimum goal would not be reached.
72. If those island nations not far above sea level are to survive, the maximum temperature rise, since the start of the industrial age, should be_______.
A. 0.8℃    B. 1.5℃
C. 2℃      D. 3.5℃
【答案】70. D 71. D   	72. B   	
【解析】
试题分析:本文介绍了人们一直努力减少温室气体的排放,并设立了到2100年我们应该达成的目标以及达成目标要符合的条件。
70.D 推理判断题。根据文章第一段三至六句“Since then, many scientists have thought that our actions do make 【名师点睛】
细节理解题一直都是高考阅读理解中常考的题型,通常细节题的正确选项有以下特征:
 1、对原文句子中的关键词进行替换。把原文中的一些词换成意义相近的词,成为正确选项。 
  2、词性或者语态的变化。把原文中的一些词变换一下词性,或者改变原文句子的语态,给考生制造障碍。 
  3、语言简化。把原文中的复杂语言现象进行简化,成为正确答案。 
  4、正话反说。把原文中的意思反过来表达而成为正确选项(适用于寻找错误选项的题目)。
以本文为例,第四段1.5℃This is the most ambitious goal for temperature rise set by the Paris Agreement, after a push by low-lying island nations like Kiribati对于那些低海拔的国家来说温度上升不超过1.5度,就可以避免他们被淹没。
干扰项也是以文章中的某个细节设题,若不仔细辨别,很容易把它当成正确选项。干扰项有以下特征: 
  1、将原文内容扩大或缩小。把原文中的限定词去掉或替换,使该选项看似正确,实际上却是错误选项。 
  2、把未然当已然。改变文中某句话的时态,如把将来时变成现在时,把未发生的事情当成已发生的事情。 
  3、无中生有。即选项内容是根据主观想象或推测得出的结论,而文中并未涉及。   
 4、偷换概念。把原来做该事的“张三”换成“李四”,所述细节确实与原文一致,一不小心就会误选。 
  5、文不对题。这类题最不容易辨别,选项中的描述与原文完全一致,确属原文中的一个细节,这时要回到题干,看该选项是否能回答题干所提的问题。
考点:

(C)
   Enough “meaningless drivel”. That’s the message from a group of members of the UK government who have been examining how social media firms like LinkedIn gather and use social media data.
   The House of Commons Science and Technology Committee’s report, released last week, has blamed firms for making people sign up to long incomprehensible legal contracts and calls for an international standard or kitemark (认证标记) to identify sites that have clear terms and conditions.
   “The term and conditions statement that we all carelessly agree to is meaningless drivel to anyone,” says Andrew Miller, the chair of the committee. Instead, he says, firms should provide a plain-English version of their terms. The simplified version would be checked by a third party and awarded a kitemark if it is an accurate reflection of the original.
   It is not yet clear who would administer the scheme, but the UK government is looking at introducing it on a voluntary basis. “we need to think through how we make that work in practice,” says Miller.
   Would we pay any more attention to a kitemark? “I think if you went and did the survey, people would like to think they would,” says Nigel Shadbolt at the University of Southampton, UK, who studies open data. “We do know people worry a lot about the inappropriate use of their information.” But what would happen in practice is another matter, he says.
  Other organisations such as banks ask customers to sign long contracts they may not read or understand, but Miller believes social media requires special attention because it is so new. “We still don’t know how significant the long-term impact is going to be of unwise things that kids put on social media that come back and bite them in 20 years’ time,” he says.
Shadbolt, who gave evidence to the committee, says the problem is that we don’t know how companies will use our data because their business models and uses of data are still evolving. Large collections of personal information have become valuable only recently, he says. 
   The shock and anger when a social media firm does something with data that people don’t expect, even if users have apparently permission, show that the current situation isn’t working. If properly administered, a kitemark on terms and conditions could help people know what exactly they are signing up to. Although they would still have to actually read them.
73. What does the phrase “ meaningless drivel” in paragraphs 1 and 3 refer to?
A. Legal contracts that social media firms make people sign up to.
B. Warnings from the UK government against unsafe websites.
C. Guidelines on how to use social media websites properly.
D. Insignificant data collected by social media firms.
74. It can be inferred from the passage that Nigel Shadbolt doubts whether _______.
A. social media firms would conduct a survey on the kitemark scheme
B. people would pay as much attention to a kitemark as they think
C. a kitemark scheme would be workable on a nationwide scale
D. the kitemark would help companies develop their business models
75. Andrew Miller thinks social media needs more attention than banks mainly because _______.
A. their users consist largely of kids under 20 years old
B. the language in their contracts is usually harder to understand
C. the information they collected could become more valuable in future
D. it remains unknown how users’ data will be taken advantage of
76. The writer advises users of social media to _______.
A. think carefully before posting anything onto such websites
B. read the terms and conditions even if there is a kitemark
C. take no further action if they can find a kitemark
D. avoid providing too much personal information
77. Which of the following is the best title of the passage?
A. Say no to social media?
B. New security rules in operation?
C. Accept without reading?
D. Administration matters!
【答案】73. A   	74. B   	75. D  	 76. B   	77. C
【解析】
试题分析:当我们在社交媒体上注册登记的时候,总会签署一些无意义的法律合同,文章就此现象展开了讨论,并列举了多人的不同观点。
73.A 词义猜测题。根据第一段第一句“...... has blamed firms for making people sign up to long incomprehensible legal contracts....”可知很多社交媒体公司和用户签订了没有意义的法律合同。而这些合同是没有意义的废话,也起不到任何作用,很多用户根本没有仔细阅读合同的具体内容。故A正确。
74.B 推理判断题。根据第五段前二句“Would we pay any more attention to a kitemark? “I think if you went and did the survey, people would like to think they would,” says Nigel Shadbolt at the University of Southampton, UK, who studies open data.”可知Nigel Shadbolt认为如果我们去做相关调查,人们会认为他们会很注意这些认证标记“We still don’t know how significant the long-term impact is going to be of unwise things that kids put on social media that come back and bite them in 20 years’ time,” he says.可知我们现在还不知道所签署的这些长期的无意义的合同未来会给他们带来什么样的影响。也不知道未来人们会怎么利用这样的信息。故D项正确。
【名师点睛】
   本文属于主旨大意题。主旨大意题主要考查学生把握全文主题和理解中心思想的能力。根据多年的备考及高考实践,这类题目考察的范围是:基本论点、文章标题、主题或段落大意等。它要求考生在理解全文的基础上能较好地运用概括、判断、归纳、推理等逻辑思维方法,对文章进行高度概括或总结,属于高层次题。选择“标题”则是让考生给所读的文章选择一个合适的标题。通常标题由一个名词或名词短语充当,用词简短、精练。
文章标题的选择或拟定 
1. 要在阅读原文的基础上,仔细考虑这句话或短语与文章主题是否有密切的联系; 
2. 再看它对文章的概括性或覆盖面如何; 
3. 要注意题目是过大还是过小; 
4. 要避免下列三种错误:①概括不够(多表现为部分代整体,从而导致范围太小);②过度概括(多表现为人为扩大范围);③以事实、细节替代抽象概括的大意。 
  要恰当地选好标题,还需要了解标题的基本拟定方式。一般来说,标题的拟定方式是:以话题为核心,将控制性概念的词按一定的语法浓缩为概括主题句句意或中心思想的词组。 
比如某一文章的中心句子为:
Coffee is a universal drink that is served in different ways around the world. 
话题:Coffee 
控制性概念:is a universal drink that is served in different ways around the world 
标题:Coffee Around the World 
以为例, 现在的网站中或者社交媒体软件中,我们在注册用户名或安装的时候,总会有一些合同或条约让我们签署。很多人从来都没有详细阅读这些合同条款就签名了。作者提出我们应该仔细阅读条款内容,然后再签名。C项“Accept without reading?未阅读就接受?”符合文章中心思想。
考点:


Section C
 Directions: Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words.
   Walking will be banned on escalators as part of a trail designed to reduce congestion(拥堵) at some of the country’s busiest stations.
   In the first move of its kind, all travelers will be forced to stand on both sides of escalators on the London Underground as part of a plan to increase capacity(容量) at the height of the rush hour.
	A six-month trial will be introduced at Holborn station from mid-April, eliminating the rule of standing on the right and walking on the left. The move, imitating a similar structure in Far eastern cities such as Hong Kong, is designed to increase the number of people using long escalators at the busiest times . it could be expanded across the Tube network in coming years.
   According to London Underground, only 40 percent of travelers walk the full length of long escalators, leaving the majority at the bottom as they wait to get on to the “standing “side.
   A three-week trial at Holborn last year found that the number of people using escalators at any time of could be raised by almost a third. Peter McNaught, operations director at London Underground, said: “It may not seem right that you can go quicker by standing still, but our experiments at Holborn have proved that it can be true. This new six-month trial will help us find out if we can influence customers to stand on both sides in the long term.”
   Holborn has one of the longest sets of escalators on the Underground network at 23.4 high. Tube bosses claim that capacity was limited because so few people wanted to walk up—meaning only one side was used at all times. Research has shown that it is more effective use of escalators over 18.5 to ban walking.
   The previous trial found that escalators at the station normally carried 2,500 people between 8:30am and 9:30am on a typical day, rising to 3,250 during the researching period.
   In the new trial, which will be launched from April 18, one of three “up” escalators will be standing only, with a second banning walking at peak times. A third will remain a mix of walking and standing.
(Note: Answering the questions the questions or complete the statements in NO MORE THAN TEN WORDS.)
78. What is the existing problem with standing on the right and walking on the left? 
79. What did last year’s three-week trial at Holborn station prove?
80.The research suggests that walking should be forbidden on escalators that are at least _________ in height.
81. In the new trail, in addition to one escalator banning walking in rush hours, the other “up” escalators will be used for_________________.
【答案】
78.	The capacity of escalators hasn't been made full use of.
79.	 Passengers can go quicker by standing still.
80.	18.5m
81.	standing only and a mix of walking and standing
【解析】
试题分析:78.	The capacity of escalators hasn't been made full use of.
推理判断题。根据第二段In the first move of its kind, all travelers will be forced to stand on both sides of escalators on the London Underground as part of a plan to increase capacity(容量) at the height of the rush hour.
79.	 Passengers can go quicker by standing still.
也可以在上面步行。
考点:

第II卷(共47分)
Translation
Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the words given in the brackets.
1.我真希望自己的文章有朝一日能见报。(hope)
2.二十世纪末中国经济迅速发展。(witness)
3.为买一双运动鞋而通宵排队有意义吗?(point)
4.虽然当时我年幼,不理解这部电影的含义,但我记得我的家人都感动得落泪了。(too…to…)
5.我阿姨苦读四年之后获得了文凭,那一刻她欣喜万分。(The moment…)
【答案】
1. I really hope that my article will be published in a newspaper someday.
2. The late twentieth century witnessed the rapid development of China’s economy.
3. What is the point of/in lining up for the whole night just to buy a pair of sports shoes? / Is there  any point (in) lining up for the whole night just to buy a pair of sports shoes?
4. Although I was then too young to understand the meaning of the film, I remember my family 
were moved to tears.
5. The moment my aunt gained her diploma after four years of hard work, she was filled with joy.
【解析】
试题分析:
1. I really hope that my article will be published in a newspaper someday.
动词hope“希望”本身就含有未来的语义,后面所接从句通常表示将来的事情。本句中副词someday意为“有朝一日”通常和一般将来时连用。
2. The late twentieth century witnessed the rapid development of China’s economy.
动词witness目睹,见证;本句属于拟人化的修辞,使用无生命的事物做主语。同时注意时态,二十世纪属于过去的时间,所以使用一般过去时的时态。
3. What is the point of/in lining up for the whole night just to buy a pair of sports shoes? / Is there  any point (in) lining up for the whole night just to buy a pair of sports shoes?
本句可以使用固定句型:There is a point in doing sth做某事有意义; 
4. Although I was then too young to understand the meaning of the film, I remember my family were moved to tears.
本句中although引导让步状语从句,表示上下文的转折关系。同时固定结构“too...to...太....而不能.....”表示否定含义。
5. The moment my aunt gained her diploma after four years of hard work, she was filled with joy.
本句中名词短语the moment转换成连词短语,意为“一...就....”,引导时间状语从句。
考点:

II. Guided Writing
   Directions:  Write an English composition in 120–150 words according to the instructions given below in Chinese.
   假设你是中华中学学生姚平,最近参加了一项研究性学习调研,课题为“父母是否以子女为荣”。通过调研你校学生及其父母,结果发现双方对此问题的看法有差异(数据如图所示)。根据图表写一份报告,在报告中,你必须:
描述调研数据;
分析可能导致这一结果的原因。

【答案】
并适当使用串联词。
考点:















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