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当前位置: 高考学习网 > 2018年高考英语通用版二轮专题复习三维课件:题型3 阅读理解 第1讲 细节理解题

2018年高考英语通用版二轮专题复习三维课件:题型3 阅读理解 第1讲 细节理解题

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* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 选项 诊断 A Because the roof of the cottage was falling. ________ B Because the cottage was in bad condition. ________ C Because he was used to living abroad. ________ D Because there was no furniture in it. ________ 选项 诊断 A charity in the world _________ B business and economy _________ C poverty in the world _________ D Bill Gates’ life experience  _________ 选项 诊断 A to let the sunshine in  ________ B to warm the hut ________ C to keep the smoke out ________ D to air the hut ________ * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 第1讲           细节理解题
细节理解题在英语高考阅读理解中占了较大的比重,但此类题型相对比较简单,只需要根据题干中的关键词,回到原文定位信息区间,稍加比对,就能得出答案。因此,对于这类题目要力求读得快、找得准、答得对,力争不丢分,保住基本分才能得高分。
细节理解题常分为直接信息题和间接信息题。所谓直接信息题就是可以在原文中直接找到答案的细节题,常用who, what, when, where, why和how等疑问词提问,这类试题主要考查原文中的时间、地点、人物等信息。间接信息题相对于直接信息题要难些,因为此类题目的正确选项都经过了命题人对原文信息的语义转换,两者存在表达上的差异。考生不能一眼就从原文中找出正确答案,而是要稍加归纳才能得出答案。
析题型——高考怎么考
1.特殊疑问句形式。以when, where, what, which, who, how much/many等疑问词引出的问题。
2.判断是非形式。含有TRUE/FALSE, NOT true或EXCEPT等的判断是非的问题。此时要注意题干中是否含有否定词,如not, never等。
3.以“According to ...”开头的提问形式。
4.填空形式。如The biggest challenge for most mothers is from ________.

[正确选项特征]
1.同义替换。指对原文句子中的关键词进行同义替换。如把lose ones job换成了be out of work。有些细节理解题把原文中的一些词变换一下词性,如把important变换成of importance;改变原文中句子的语态,如主动语态与被动语态的转换。
2.信息归纳。用精炼的语言来概括原文中比较分散或复杂的信息,设置为正确答案。
3.正话反说。把原文中的意思反过来表达而成为正确选项。
[干扰选项特征]1.张冠李戴。是原文信息,但不是题目要求的内容。
2.无中生有。符合常识,但不是文章的内容。
3.曲解文意。与原文的内容极其相似,只是在某个细节处有些变动。
4.颠倒是非。在意思上与原文大相径庭甚至完全相反。
5.正误参半。部分正确,部分错误。
通技法——解题怎么办
一、直接信息题——二步准判定
[解题流程]
[典例示范]
(2017·全国卷阅读B节选)
...
The homeowner was very helpful.A wire basket was found.I put some pine branches into the basket to make this nest safe and comfortable.I placed the chick in the nest, and it quickly calmed down.
...
26.What made the chick calm down?
A.A new nest.  B.Some food.
C.A recording.  D.Its parents.
第一步:依题干信息,选择定位关键词
仔细阅读题干可知动词短语“calm down”为问题的核心信息,即为本题的定位关键词。
第二步:由定位关键词,回原文进行信息定位
带着“calm down”这个定位关键词,通过寻读、略读等技巧可快速在原文中的第四段找到含有此关键词的句子“I placed the chick in the nest, and it quickly calmed down.”,根据此句,我们可以迅速确定答案为A项。

间接信息题相比直接信息题,命题的隐蔽性更强,正确选项一般都会在原文基础上进行改造。在做间接信息题时,要做到“两关注”“一防范”。“两关注”是指关注正确选项的两个特征:一是同义词替换或释义,即把文中语言(词汇和结构)改头换面,来表达相同的意思;二是对文章信息的归纳。“一防范”是指防范干扰选项的逼真性,稍有不慎就会落入命题人设置的陷阱中。因此,在做细节理解间接信息题时,要根据所找信息,分析选项,对比其中所用词汇,避免误选答案。必要时要对原文信息进行归纳,然后比对选项,进而选出正确答案。
二、
(一)看是否是“同义替换”
同义替换是指命题人利用同义词或近义词对原文的关键信息进行替换。解题时,考生应该根据题意,快速跳读全文,找到关键信息,然后在选项中寻找与原文信息最接近的同义词或近义词,这样就可确定正确答案。
[典例] (2017·B节选) 
I first met Paul Newman in 1968, when George Roy Hill, the director of Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, introduced us in New York City.When the studio didn’t want me for the film — it wanted somebody as well known as Paul — he stood up for me.I don’t know how many people would have done that; they would have listened to their agents or the studio powers.
24.Why was the studio unwilling to give the role to author at first?
A.Paul Newman wanted it.
B.The studio powers didnt like his agent.
C.He wasnt famous enough.
D.The director recommended someone else.
[解析] 根据文中“When the studio didnt want me for the film — it wanted somebody as well known as Paul ...”可知,工作室不想让“我”拍这部电影是因为想让一名与Paul一样出名的演员出演。注意本题命题人根据文中信息对C项进行了同义替换,用famous替换well known。
[答案] C 
(二)看是否是“信息归纳”
归纳信息是指命题人用精炼的语言来概括原文中比较分散或复杂的信息,这是命题人设计细节理解间接信息题时经常使用的手段之一。考生首先应依据题干指向,到文中找到相应的信息区间,然后尝试用自己的语言去归纳文中的信息或事实,然后再看选项,挑选出和自己所归纳的信息最接近的选项作为正确答案。
[典例] (2016·B节选)
Grandparents Answer a Call
As a third­generation native of Brownsville, Texas, Mildred Garza never planned to move away.Even when her daughter and son asked her to move to San Antonio to help with their children, she politely refused.Only after a year of friendly discussion did Ms.Garza finally say yes.That was four years ago.Today all three generations regard the move as a success, giving them a closer relationship than they would have had in separate cities.
25.Why was Garzas move a success?
A.It strengthened her family ties.
B.It improved her living conditions.
C.It enabled her to make more friends.
D.It helped her know more new places.
[解析] 归纳分析本段最后一句“Today all three generations regard the move as a success, giving them a closer relationship than they would have had in separate cities.”可知,三代人都将这一搬家视为一种成功,因为它使一家人的关系更为密切。即A选项中的“增强了她的家庭关系”。
[答案] A
(三)给干扰选项定性
高考英语阅读理解在考查细节理解题时,在干扰项的设置上也是“煞费苦心”,常使用诸如张冠李戴、无中生有、曲解文意、颠倒是非、正误参半等方式来造成句意的改变。其中最常见的干扰项是用了与原文相似的句型结构和大部分相似的词汇,却在不易引人注意的地方换了几个词汇,造成句意的改变。
[典例] (2017·Ⅰ阅读B节选)
I got a rescue call from a woman in Muttontown.She had found a young owl (猫头鹰) on the ground.When I arrived, I saw a 2­ to 3­week­old owl.It had already been placed in a carrier for safety.
25.Why was the author called to Muttontown?
A.To rescue a woman.   B.To take care of a woman.
C.To look at a baby owl.	  D.To cure a young owl.
[解析] 由本段中的“She had found a young owl (猫头鹰) on the ground.When I arrived, I saw a 2­ to 3­week­old owl.”可知,一位女士在地上发现了一只猫头鹰幼雏,她给作者打了求助电话,由此可知,这位女士让作者去Muttontown是为了让作者看一看那只猫头鹰幼雏,故选C项。
A、B两项颠倒是非,作者接到了一位女士的求助电话,但不是去救助或照顾这位女士。
D项曲解文意,女士打电话时并不确定猫头鹰幼雏是否受伤,所以她不是让作者去治好它。
[答案] C 
[解题流程]
[典例示范]
(2017·全国卷Ⅱ阅读D节选)
When a leafy plant is under attack, it doesnt sit quietly.Back in 1983, two scientists, Jack Schultz and Ian Baldwin, reported that young maple trees getting bitten by insects send out a particular smell that neighboring plants can get.These chemicals come from the injured parts of the plant and seem to be an alarm.What the plants pump through the air is a mixture of chemicals known as volatile organic compounds, VOCs for short.
32.What does a plant do when it is under attack?
A.It makes noises.
B.It gets help from other plants.
C.It stands quietly.
D.It sends out certain chemicals.
第一步:审读题干抓关键,定位信息区间
根据关键词的醒目性和唯一性原则,可以确定本题的关键词为plant和under attack。从而定位本题的信息区间为第一段。
第二步:选项与原文逐一比对,确定正确选项

Ⅰ.命题方式练
请选择以下设误方式(张冠李戴、无中生有、曲解文意、颠倒是非、正误参半)或正确选项特征(原文原词、同义替换、信息归纳、正话反说)填入下表的“诊断”一栏中。
1.(原文节选)Shortly after the war, my brother and I were invited to spend a few days with an uncle who had just returned from abroad.He had rented a cottage in the country, although he rarely spent much time there.We understood the reason for this after our arrival: the cottage had no comfortable furniture in it, many of the windows were broken and the roof leaked, making the whole house damp.
Why did the uncle seldom spend much time in the country cottage?
曲解文意
信息归纳
曲解文意
颠倒是非
2.(原文节选)In between running one of the worlds largest charitable agencies and acting as Microsoft’s technology advisor, Bill Gates manages to find time to read books, both long and short.Now Gates — who has been labeled a “greedy” reader — has released a list of his favorite books.All of the books are standout reads, according to the billionaire, most of which are focused on business and economy.
The books mentioned in the text are all about ______.
张冠李戴
原文原词
无中生有
无中生有
3.(原文节选)The hut was warm and quite comfortable inside.There was a stove, and some bread and beer on a shelf.On each side of the hut was a round hole like a window, which could be closed with a piece of wood.These air holes were usually kept open when the stove was burning, because too much smoke in a small, airless hut could kill the shepherd.
The function of the round holes was ________.
无中生有
曲解文意
曲解文意
同义替换
Ⅱ.语篇综合练
(2017·合肥市高三第一次教学质量检测)
Bookstores are a travellers best friend:  they provide convenient shelter in bad weather, and they often host readings and other cultural events.Here is a look at the world’s six greatest bookstores.
Adrian Harrington — since 1971.Rare books; rare first editions; leather­bound sets and general antiques (古玩).Address: 64A Kensington Church Street, Kensington, London, England, U.K.
Another Country — Kreuzberg, Berlin, Germany.
Another Country is an English language second­hand bookshop which is mostly used as a library.They have about 20,000 books that you can buy or borrow.Some regular events are held at the shop, such as readings, cultural events, social evenings and film nights.
Atlantis Books — Oia, Santorini, Greece.Atlantis Books is an independent bookshop on the island of Santorini, Greece, founded in 2004 by a group of friends from Cyprus, England, and the United States.Throughout the year it has hosted literary festivals, film screenings, book readings, and good old­fashioned dance parties.
Bart’s Books — Ojai, California, U.S.A.“The Worlds Greatest Outdoor Bookstore”, a bookstore founded by Richard Bartinsdale in 1964.Shelves of books face the street, and regular customers are asked to drop coins into the doors coin box to pay for any books they take whenever the store is closed.
10 Corso Como — Milan, Italy.Extensive selection of publication on art, architecture, design, graphics and fashion, along with a strong emphasis on photography.It was founded in 1990 in Milan, Italy, by Carla Sozzani.
The Bookworm — A bookshop, library, bar, restaurant and event space, now with five locations in three cities in China — Beijing, Suzhou and Chengdu.The interconnecting rooms with floor­to­ceiling books on every wall are light and airy (通风的) in summer, yet warm and comfortable in winter.
语篇解读:本文是一篇应用文,主要介绍了六个世界上赫赫有名的书店。
1.Which of the following bookstores has the longest history?
A.Adrian Harrington.  B.Atlantis Books.
C.Barts Books.  				D.10 Corso Como.
解析:细节理解题。根据第二段的“Adrian Harrington — since 1971”,第四段的“founded in 2004”,第五段的“founded by Richard Bartinsdale in 1964”及第六段的“It was founded in 1990 in Milan”可知,Barts Books有着最长的历史。
答案:C
2.What can you do in Atlantis Books?
A.Attend a festival.	  B.Learn photography.
C.Enjoy rare books.	  D.Buy books anytime.
解析:细节理解题。根据第四段最后一句“Throughout the year it has hosted literary festivals ...dance parties.”可知,在Atlantis Books你可以参加文学节。
答案:A 
3.How is The Bookworm different from the other bookstores?
A.It is used as a library.
B.It hosts all sorts of activities.
C.It focuses on photography.
D.It has branches in different cities.
解析:细节理解题。根据最后一段中的“now with five locations in three cities in China — Beijing, Suzhou and Chengdu”可知,The Bookworm与其他书店的区别在于它在不同的城市有分店。
答案:D 
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