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当前位置: 高考学习网 > 2018年高考英语通用版二轮专题复习三维课件:题型3 阅读理解 第2讲 推理判断题

2018年高考英语通用版二轮专题复习三维课件:题型3 阅读理解 第2讲 推理判断题

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* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 议论文 文章的论点往往会直接或间接的表明作者的态度立场 说明文 作者往往采取中立的态度 记叙文 作者往往不直接提出观点,但常常有某种倾向性,读文时要细心捕捉表达或暗示情感态度的词或短语 故事类记叙文 目的通常是娱乐读者(to entertain) 广告类应用文 目的一般是推销产品或服务 (to advertise) 议论文 目的是要阐述论点(to argue/persuade) 科普、文化 类说明文 目的大多是介绍知识(to inform) * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 推理判断题、和词义猜测题这三种题型属于阅读理解中的重点、难点,本课针对这三种易失分的题型重点讲解,以期在二轮有限的复习时间内帮助考生攻重点、破难点。找到失分点,才是努力点;攻克薄弱点,才是增分点。
析题型——高考怎么考第2讲             推理判断题
(一)熟悉3种常考题型
1.细节推理判断题
细节推理判断题要求考生根据语篇内容,推断具体细节,如时间、地点、人物关系、人物身份、事件等。一般可根据短文提供的信息,或者借助生活常识进行推理判断。考生只有正确把握文章的内在关系,理解文章的真正含义,才可能作出准确的推断。题干主要包括六个动词:infer (推断), indicate (象征,暗示), imply (暗示), suggest (暗示), conclude (作出结论)和assume (假定,设想)。
该类型的命题方式常常以下列形式呈现:
·It can be inferred from the text that ________.
·Compared with other similar products, the new design ________.
·It can be concluded from the passage that ________.
·The writer/author indicates/suggests/implies that _______.
2.观点、态度推理判断题
(1)文章的观点或结论推理判断题
此类试题问的不一定是全文的中心思想或作者的全文观点,可能只是文章中的某一观点,但要推测文中某一观点,仍离不开对全文中心思想的把握。因为它们在语义上是紧密相连的,次要的观点是支撑说明全文主要论点的。所以了解全文主要观点或中心思想对正确解答此类试题至关重要。该类型的命题方式常常以下列形式呈现:
·It can be inferred from the passage that ________.
·What conclusion can be drawn from the passage?
·From the passage we can conclude that ________.
(2)作者态度、语气推理判断题
此类试题往往通过作者在文章里的措词、文体和结构表现出来,并常常用下面的一些词汇进行表述。如:褒义词useful, interesting, admiring, positive 等;贬义词disappointed, critical, negative等;中性词indifferent, humor, neutral等。因此考生必须透过字里行间察其端倪,以此作为前提进行推理。
该类型的命题方式常常以下列形式呈现:
·The attitude of the author towards somebody/something is ________.
·The author’s attitude towards ...can be best described as ________.
·The tone of this passage is best described as _______.
3.写作意图推理判断题
写作意图推理判断题要求考生根据文章的论述,揣测作者的写作意图及运用某种写作手法的目的。作者一般不直接陈述自己的意图,而是通过文章所提供的事实,客观地使读者信服某种想法或观点。这种题型要求考生不但能理解文章的大意,同时还要具备对作者阐述问题的方法进行归纳总结和分析的能力。
该类型的命题方式常常以下列形式呈现:
·The main purpose of this text is ________.
·Whats the author’s purpose in writing this article?
·It can be concluded that the passage is mainly written for ________.
·The author writes this passage to ________.
·The author in this passage intends to ________.
1.正确选项特征
推理判断题中的正确选项是依据文章的事实或论据推断出的符合逻辑的结论或观点,正确选项一般具有以下特征:
(1)“立足原文,只推一步”,即根据原文内容,一步即可推得。
(2)选项中一般不可以出现绝对概念,如only, never, all, absolutely等,正确答案的表述一般有一点模糊,会用一些相对能够留下一些余地的词汇,如often, usually, sometimes, some, may, might, can, could, possibly, probably等。
(二)明确选项特征
2.干扰选项特征
(1)主观臆断:没有基于原文进行推断,而是根据常识推断。
(2)过度推断:有时作者只是客观地叙述事实,并未做评论,而一些选项却主观地进行推断。如提到一样东西贵,并不意味着就买不起。
(3)错误推断:某些细节看似在原文中出现过,但与原文不符,或断章取义,或因果倒置等。
(4)以细节代替推断:只是原文简单的复述,而非推断出来的结论。
通技法——解题怎么办
[典例] (2017·Ⅱ阅读C)
Terrafugia Inc.said Monday that its new flying car has completed its first flight, bringing the company closer to its goal of selling the flying car within the next year.The vehicle — named the Transition — has two seats, four wheels and wings that fold up so it can be driven like a car.The Transition, which flew at 1,400 feet for eight minutes last month, can reach around 70 miles per hour on the road and 115 in the air.It flies using a 23­gallon tank of gas and burns 5 gallons per hour in the air.On the ground, it gets 35 miles per gallon.
Around 100 people have already put down a $10,000 deposit to get a Transition when they go on sale, and those numbers will likely rise after Terrafugia introduces the Transition to the public later this week at the New York Auto Show.But don?t expect it to show up in too many driveways.It?s expected to cost $279,000.And it won?t help if you?re stuck in traffic.The car needs a runway.
Inventors have been trying to make flying cars since the 1930s, according to Robert Mann, an airline industry expert.But Mann thinks Terrafugia has come closer than anyone to making the flying car a reality.The government has already permitted the company to use special materials to make it easier for the vehicle to fly.The Transition is now going through crash tests to make sure it meets federal safety standards.
Mann said Terrafugia was helped by the Federal Aviation Administration?s decision five years ago to create a separate set of standards for light sport aircraft, which are lower than those for pilots of larger planes.Terrafugia says an owner would need to pass a test and complete 20 hours of flying time to be able to fly the Transition, a requirement pilots would find relatively easy to meet.
[尝试解题]
1.Why is the Transition unlikely to show up in too many driveways?(  )
A.It causes traffic jams.
B.It is difficult to operate.
C.It is very expensive.
D.It burns too much fuel.
2.What is the governments attitude to the development of 
the flying car?(  )
A.Cautious.B.Favorable.
C.Ambiguous.D.Disapproving.
3.(改编)Whats the author’s purpose in writing the text?(  )
A.To show the advantages of flying cars.
B.To persuade people to buy a flying car.
C.To introduce a new flying car.
D.To explain how the Transition is made.
[由题型析技法]
1.细节推理判断题
第1题为细节推理判断题。根据题干中的关键词“show up in too many driveways”我们可以迅速定位到文章第二段中的“But dont expect it to show up in too many driveways.”这句话,其后面的句子就是原因,即“Its expected to cost $279,000.”经过分析、推理不难得出答案为C项,即它非常昂贵。[个性技法]2.观点、态度推理判断题
第2题为观点、态度推理判断题。根据题干中的关键词“governments attitude”和“the development of the flying car”可知本题考查的是政府对发展飞行汽车所持的态度。根据这个关键信息,回到原文找到第三段中的“The government has already permitted the company to use special materials to make it easier for the vehicle to fly.”这句话,分析可推知政府对发展飞行汽车是支持的,故正确选项为B项。 [个性技法](1)根据文章体裁推断观点、态度
(2)学会区分不同的观点,尤其要善于找出作者的观点。考生要注意文中出现的直接引语和间接引语,出现的观点一般是当事人的观点,而不是作者的观点。作者的观点一般用in my opinion/view, personally, I think, I hold等词语引出。
(3)要分清选项中的表示支持或肯定、中立、反对或否定的词语,再以此对照文章的内容。
3.写作意图推理判断题
第3题为写作意图推理判断题。本文是一篇科普说明文。Terrafugia公司研制出飞行汽车并成功进行了第一次飞行,使飞行汽车成为现实更进一步。本文各段落的大意为:
第一段:Terrafugia公司研制出名为Transition的飞行汽车并且成功进行了第一次飞行,并且介绍了Transition的基本数据。
第二段:大约100人为Transition付了订金,但其价格太高,不太可能大量出现在马路上。
第三段:自从20世纪30年代发明家就开始尝试研制飞行汽车,而Terrafugia公司使飞行汽车成为可能,政府在飞行汽车的研制过程中也起到了积极作用。
第四段:介绍了对飞行汽车驾驶人的要求。
综合分析各段大意可知,本文的写作意图是向读者介绍一种新的飞行汽车,故答案为C项。[个性技法]
根据文章体裁推断写作意图
[由个性到通法]
推理判断题除因题型不同,解题方法稍有不同外,其推理判断的原则是一致的。那就是依据原文,合理推断、适度推断;而不是妄加推断、过度推断。无论何类型推断题,其推断的出发点是一致的,均应该掌握以下技巧和防范以下错误。
5
1.理解通篇大意,把握写作意图
做推理判断题时,考生应对整篇文章有完整、准确的理解,从总体上把握文章的主题,善于抓住文中的关键词或关键句子。对文章的引申含义进行分析,整合与题目相关的信息,综合起来去把握写作意图,确定最佳结论。
2.关注特定措辞,推断作者态度
作者的态度、倾向是指作者对陈述的观点是赞同、反对还是犹豫不定,对记叙或描写的人、物或事件等是赞颂、同情、冷漠还是厌恶、憎恨。作者的这种思想倾向和感情色彩往往隐含在文章的字里行间,或流露于修饰的词语之中。因此,在推断过程中,应特别注意文中作者的措辞,尤其是表达感情色彩的形容词。
3.利用语境褒贬,进行逻辑推断
几乎每篇文章的语境都有一定的褒贬性,这种褒贬性反映了故事人物的特定心理、情绪状态及作者的写作意图。因此,考生阅读文章时一定要找出反映语境褒贬性的标志性词汇或句子,掌握文章主旨大意,了解人物的心理特点及发展变化,从而正确地进行逻辑推断。
4.抓住有效信息,逆向或正向推理
逆向推理的推理方式和正向推理相反,它是由结论出发,去验证结论的正确性并寻找论据。做此类命题要善于抓住某一段话中的关键信息,即某些关键词或短语去分析、推理和判断,利用逆向思维或正面推理,从而推断出这句话所隐含的深层含义。
5.结合已知常识,进行逻辑推理
阅读理解命题通常源于材料,略高于材料,但一般不会离开所给材料。但有时,命题者会巧妙地把人们所知的常识融入命题。如果考生忽略了常识或不知道这一常识,这样的命题就很难处理。
4
解答推理判断题一定要忠实于原文,以文章提供的事实和线索为依据,即立足已知,推断未知,不能主观臆想,随意揣测,更不能以自己的观点代替作者的观点。推理判断题难度大,主要在于它的干扰项极具迷惑性,极易转移考生视线,使他们掉入陷阱。考生常出现的典型错误有:
1.张冠李戴:命题人把文章作者的观点与他人的观点混淆起来,粗心的考生往往会不知不觉地中了圈套。
2.以偏概全:考生做题往往忽略了文章的主体,把注意力过度集中在某一点,最终得出“以偏概全”的结论。
3.浮于表面:每篇文章都有一个特定的写作目的,或是向读者传递某个信息,或是娱乐读者,或是阐述某个观点。这些信息通常以叙述的形式展现出来,作者并不发表自己的观点,因此主题往往比较含蓄。但是许多考生会分不清现象与本质,把现象等同于作者的意图。
4.推己及人:很多时候作者的态度倾向一般不会明确表明,往往隐含其中。考生易脱离原文而进行主观臆断,用自己的观点代替了作者的观点。

A
(2017·成都市高中毕业班第二次诊断性检测)
Fans of the movie Finding Nemo may remember the terrifying fish that scares Dory and Marlin at the bottom of a trench.
But in reality this “monster”, a black seadevil, is only about 9 cm long, which would make it about a third of the size of Dory and potentially smaller than Marlin or Nemo.
Specimens must be methodically collected, identified, and then the identity of new deep­water species must be confirmed.
If we call unusual deep­sea animals monsters, then we may harm their conservation as people are unlikely to be connected with them or care about saving them.
On the other hand, their rarity clearly makes them popular on social media sites.For other species, this has already resulted in increases in illegal trading for unusual pets.Deep­sea species may potentially become illegally obtained specimens or food.Humans may end up eating these animals of the deep sea to extinction before their species are even known to science.
Every habitat on earth is interconnected, and whatever we as humans do has an influence on marine ecosystems.In reality, about 80% of our oxygen is produced by microorganisms (微生物) in the oceans.This makes our oceans both the lungs and lifeblood of our planet and we must all try harder to save them.
语篇解读:本文主要从电影里对深海物种的不准确认识,谈到了保护深海物种的重要性。
1.What can we know about the black seadevil in reality?
A.People benefit greatly from the oxygen produced by it.
B.Its body size is a big threat to fish like Dory and Nemo.
C.Its scary appearance will cause problems for conservation.
D.People didnt know much about it when filming 
Finding Nemo.
解析:推理判断题。根据第一段中的“the terrifying fish that scares Dory and Marlin”并结合第二段的整体内容可知,拍摄这部电影时,人们对这种物种了解很少,故选D。
答案:D 
2.What does the author think of the progress of describing new species?
A.Acceptable.  B.Surprising.
C.Unsatisfying.	  D.Hopeless.
解析:推理判断题。根据第四段的最后一句“While this figure may seem astonishing, a further 5,000 individual dead creatures are in specimen (标本) jars, waiting to  be described.”可推知,作者认为科学家对海洋新物种的研究不能令人满意,故选C。
答案:C 
3.What does the underlined word “this” in Paragraph 7 probably refer to?
A.Their popularity on social media sites.
B.Their rarity among sea creatures.
C.Their conservation being harmed.
D.Their importance being ignored.
解析:代词指代题。根据倒数第二段的第一句“On the other hand, their rarity clearly makes them popular on 
social media sites.”可推知,此处的this指代上文稀有物种在社交媒体网站上受青睐的状况,故选A。
答案:A 
4.What can we infer about those unusual sea animals?
A.They are the lungs and lifeblood of our planet.
B.Confirming their identity is very urgent for protection.
C.Most of them are becoming illegally obtained specimens.
D.Adorable ones are more likely to be posted on social media sites.
解析:推理判断题。根据倒数第三段“If we call unusual deep­sea animals monsters, then we may harm their conservation as people are unlikely to be connected with them or care about saving them.”可推知,科学地认知稀有物种对于对这些物种的保护很紧迫,故选B。
答案:B 
B
(2017·石家庄高三复习教学质量检测二)
Teens for Planet Earth
This is a social networking site for teenagers who want to get involved in protecting our planet.They can connect with other green­minded teens, choose a project or create their own.Teens for Planet Earth encourage young folks to get busy in their own communities.They offer guidance on local projects with  categories  such  as  habitats,  animals,  water  and education.Awards are given to active members.
Meez
At Meez, teens can create their own avatars (头像), rooms and virtual pets.It is a social community of creative people that combines avatars, virtual worlds and games.Meez offers contests and chat as well as homework help, a fashion centre and a writers’ corner.A chat area for younger teens is available.Other areas are music, geek (极客) centre, art and sports.
Cyberteens
Cyberteens is another cool site that celebrates the teen years.Here teenagers can find communities,  games,  and news.There is a link called “creativity” where teens can share their poems, stories, photos and artwork.The “cool links” section offers a huge variety of options to the curious teens.This site also has surveys and helps with jobs and schoolwork.
Student.com
Student.com is a resource site for teens and high school students.Its social network has over 900,000 members.
Members earn points to win prizes just by browsing and they offer several multi­player games.Points are used to buy items at auction (拍卖会).Student.com is filled with useful information and articles.
语篇解读:本文主要介绍了四个与青少年相关的网站,包括网站的目的、活动内容等信息。
5.What is Teens for Planet Earth aimed at?
A.Setting up a project.
B.Giving awards to teens.
C.Getting young folks busy.
D.Giving advice on local projects.
解析:推理判断题。根据第一段的第四句“They offer guidance on local projects with  categories  such  as  
habitats, animals, water and education.”可知,Teens for Planet Earth为当地的项目提供指导;据此可知,该网站旨在为当地项目提供建议,故D项正确。
答案:D 
6.Which website offers assistance in jobs?
A.Teens for Planet Earth.B.Meez.
C.Cyberteens.D.Student.com.
解析:细节理解题。根据第三段的最后一句“This site also has surveys and helps with jobs and schoolwork.”可知,Cyberteens为青少年提供工作上的帮助,故C项正确。
答案:C 
7.What makes Student.com special among these websites?
A.It has the most members.
B.Teens can read articles on it.
C.It offers help on schoolwork.
D.Teens can make purchases on it.
解析:细节理解题。根据最后一段的倒数第二句“Points are used to buy items at auction (拍卖会).”可知,在Student.com网站上,点数可以用来购买拍卖的商品,而其他三个网站都没有这一功能,故D项正确。
答案:D 
8.What can we infer about the websites mentioned in the text?
A.They provide game platforms.
B.They benefit teens in their social life.
C.They award outstanding teens.
D.They offer various study guidance.
解析:推理判断题。根据第一段的第一句“This is a social networking site for teenagers who want to get involved in protecting our planet.”以及第二段的第二句、第三段的前两句、第四段的前两句可推知,这四个网站的共同特点是都能使青少年参与社交活动并从中受益,故B项正确。
答案:B 
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