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2018年高考英语通用版二轮专题复习三维课件:题型3 阅读理解 第3讲 主旨大意题

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* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * A 通过儿童的游戏解释世界或许更清晰。 本段虽提到了儿童的游戏,但并未谈及此内容,选项概括的内容范围过大。 过于笼统,不知所云 B 研究婴儿的游戏或许有助于更好地理解科学。 B项是对本段内容的精炼总结和概括。 涵盖性强,覆盖全段 C 儿童或许拥有比科学家更强的理解事物的能力。 本段提及了儿童与科学家一样都有理解事物的能力,但并未作出比较。 无中生有,生搬硬套 D 一个人对科学研究的动力可能会随着他的成长变得更强。 本段提到了人类的进化给婴儿提供了好奇心和天生的解释世界的动力,但并未提及其与个人成长的关系。 无中生有,生搬硬套 * * * * * * * * * * * * 正确选项特征 干扰选项特征 1.涵盖性强,    覆盖全文或    全段。 2.确定的范围    恰当,既不    太大,也不    太小。 3.精确性强,    不会改变语    言表意的程    度及色彩。 1.过于笼 统,不 知所云 所给选项内容概括的范围过大,超出文章所述内容。 2.以偏概全,主 次不分 所给选项只阐述了文章的一部分内容,或以文章中的细节信息或个别词作为选项的设置内容,或以次要的事实或细节充当全文的主要观点。 3.移花接木,偷 换概念 所给选项被命题者有意识地把本属于A的内容放在B上,若不留神,极易选错答案。 4.无中生有,生 搬硬套 所给选项的关键词语虽然在文章中谈到了,但经过仔细阅读分析之后,发现选项的内容与文章的内容毫无联系。 A 探索爵士乐的未来 此标题全面、精炼地概括了文章内容。 涵盖性强,覆盖全文 B 爵士乐的兴衰 虽然文中提到了爵士乐的衰落,但不能概括全文的内容。 以偏概全,主次不分 C 一个爵士乐音乐家的故事 文中没有讲述一个爵士乐音乐家的故事。 无中生有,生搬硬套 D 庆祝爵士乐日 文中第一段提到了国际爵士乐日的设立,但这不是文章主要介绍的内容。 以偏概全,主次不分 A 美国的野生生物调查 这种说法过于宽泛。 过于笼统,不知所云 B 黄石地区的植物种类 文中只是提到了由于灰狼的消失,导致植被破坏。 以偏概全,主次不分 C 农场主和灰狼之间的冲突 文中提到生物学家建议重新引入狼群,但附近农场主反对,这是文章的一项内容。 以偏概全,主次不分 D 重新将灰狼引入黄石公园 文章围绕重新将灰狼引入黄石公园展开讨论。 涵盖性强,覆盖全文 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 主旨大意题是阅读理解中考生失分最多的题目,因为该类试题不仅考查考生略读文章、领会大意的能力,也对考生的归纳、概括能力提出了较高的要求。文章中没有明显的解题依据,需要考生从文章中提炼、抽取一些关键词、主干句进行加工概括,才能归纳出文章的主旨。此类题目可分为三大类,即标题归纳题、文章大意题和段落大意题。要做好主旨大意题,我们首先必须了解其正确选项和干扰选项的特征。
第3讲
题型一 标题归纳题
·The best title of the passage is ________.
·Which of the following is the best title of the passage?
·What would be the best title for the passage?
·The most appropriate title of the passage is ______.

[题型技法]
理解标题的3,3大方法确定文章标题
一个好的标题应具备三大特点:
1.概括——准确而又简短;
2.针对性——标题外延正好与文章内容相符;
3.醒目——能引发读者的阅读欲望。
因此有必要掌握以下三大方法:
1.正面肯定法:在理解文章主旨的基础上,揣摩哪个选项能准确概括主旨;
2.反面否定法:撇开原文,拿各个备选项去设想用它们写出来的“文章”将是什么内容,然后和原文章对照,一一排除不符选项;
3.研读备选项本身:研读备选项里面的中心词、修饰词的变化、结构、概括性等。
[典例示范]
(2017·全国卷Ⅰ阅读C)
Some of the worlds most famous musicians recently gathered in Paris and New Orleans to celebrate the first annual International Jazz Day.UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) recently set April 30 as a day to raise awareness of jazz music, its significance, and its potential as a unifying (联合) voice across cultures.
Despite the celebrations, though, in the U.S.the jazz audience continues to shrink and grow older, and the music has failed to connect with younger generations.
Its Jason Moran’s job to help change that.As the Kennedy Center’s artistic adviser for jazz, Moran hopes to widen the audience for jazz, make the music more accessible, and preserve its history and culture.
“Jazz seems like it’s not really a part of the American appetite,” Moran tells National Public Radios reporter Neal Conan.“What I’m hoping to accomplish is that my generation and younger start to reconsider and understand that jazz is not black and white anymore.It’s actually color, and it’s actually digital.”
Moran says one of the problems with jazz today is that the entertainment aspect of the music has been lost.“The music can’t be presented today the way it was in 1908 or 1958.It has to continue to move, because the way the  world works is not the same,” says Moran.
Last year, Moran worked on a project that arranged Fats Waller’s music for a dance party, “just to kind of put it back in the mind that Waller is dance music as much as it is concert music,”says oran.“For me, its the recontextualization.In music, where does the emotion (情感) lie?Are we, as humans, gaining any insight (感悟) on how to talk about ourselves and how something as abstract as a Charlie Parker record gets us into a dialogue about our emotions and our thoughts? Sometimes we lose sight that the music has a wider context,” says Moran, “so I want to continue those dialogues.Those are the things I want to foster.”
31.Which of the following can be the best title for the text?
A.Exploring the Future of Jazz
B.The Rise and Fall of Jazz
C.The Story of a Jazz Musician
D.Celebrating the Jazz Day
[解题样板]
第一步:读文章,概括文意
通读全文可知,文章介绍了国际爵士乐日的设立以及爵士乐现在面临的问题,并探讨了爵士乐的未来。
第二步:析选项,斟酌判断
[答案] A
题型二 文章大意题

·What?s the main idea/point of the passage?
·The passage is mainly about ________.
·The passage is mainly concerned about ________.
·Which of the following best states the main idea of the passage?
·Which of the following statements best expresses the main 
idea/theme of the passage?
·In this passage the author discusses primarily ________.
·The subject discussed in this text is ________.
·The general/main idea of the passage is about ________.  

[题型技法]
掌握寻找主题句的4
文章是由段落组成的。段落的主题就是段落的中心思想,具体段落的中心思想又是为文章整体中心思想服务的。理解整篇文章的中心思想的方法是建立在理解具体段落中心的基础上的。找出每小段的主题句,各段的主题句常在该段的首句或尾句,各段主题句的整体归纳便是文章的中心思想。有的文章无明显主题句,主题句隐含在段意之中,这就需要进一步加工概括。观察全文的结构安排,理解文章的“重心”和支撑性细节。
用浏览法(skimming),即快速阅读文首、文尾,或每段的首句和尾句等,搜索主题线索和主题信息的方法可以快速找到主题句。以下是找主题句的四个小窍门:
1.段落中出现表示转折的词语(如however, but, in fact, actually等)时,该句很可能是主题句。
2.首段出现疑问句时,对该问题的回答很可能就是文章主旨。
3.作者有意识地重复的观点,通常是主旨;反复出现的词语,一般为体现文章主旨的关键词。
4.表示总结或结论的句子常包含therefore, thus, in short, conclude, conclusion等词。
[典例示范]
(2017·全国卷Ⅲ阅读C)
After years of heated debate, gray wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park.Fourteen wolves were caught in Canada and transported to the park.By last year, the Yellowstone wolf population had grown to more than 170 wolves.
Gray wolves once were seen here and there in the Yellowstone area and much of the continental United States, but they were gradually displaced by human development.
By the 1920s, wolves had practically disappeared from the Yellowstone area.They went farther north into the deep forests of Canada, where there were fewer humans around.
The disappearance of the wolves had many unexpected results.Deer and elk populations — major food sources (来源) for the wolf — grew rapidly.These animals consumed large amounts of vegetation (植被), which reduced plant diversity in the park.In the absence of wolves, coyote populations also grew quickly.The coyotes killed a large percentage of the park’s red foxes, and completely drove away the park’s beavers.
As early as 1966, biologists asked the government to consider reintroducing wolves to Yellowstone Park.They hoped that wolves would be able to control the elk and coyote problems.Many farmers opposed the plan because they feared that wolves would kill their farm animals or pets.
The government spent nearly 30 years coming up with a plan to reintroduce the wolves.The U.S.Fish and Wildlife Service carefully monitors and manages the wolf packs in Yellowstone.Today, the debate continues over how well the gray wolf is fitting in at Yellowstone.Elk, deer, and coyote populations are down, while beavers and red foxes have made a comeback.The Yellowstone wolf project has been a valuable experiment to help biologists decide whether to reintroduce wolves to other parts of the country as well.
8.What is the text mainly about?
A.Wildlife research in the United States.
B.Plant diversity in the Yellowstone area.
C.The conflict between farmers and gray wolves.
D.The reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone Park.
[解题样板]
第一步:读文章,概括文意
在争议了几年之后黄石国家公园终于把灰狼重新引入公园,以保持公园内的生态平衡。
第二步:析选项,斟酌判断
[答案] D
题型三 段落大意题
·What does the author tell us in Paragraph ...?
·The main idea of the second paragraph probably is ______.
·The first paragraph is mainly about ________.
·Which of the following can best summarize Para.1?  

[题型技法]
两方法破解段落大意题
方法1:概括段落大意
要准确概括某段的大意,务必要知道该段的逻辑结构。如该段是按总分顺序组织,首句做总的说明,其他句子对其进行具体论述,这种结构的主题句就在段首;如果按分总顺序组织,主题句就在段尾;如果按分总分的顺序组织,则主题句就在这段话的中间;如果对比各事物,那么它们的共同点或不同点就是该段大意。
方法2:揣摩段落大意
有时,作者可能不直接写出主题句,而是通过各种方法暗示给读者,这就需要充分发挥读者的想象力与判断力,揣摩段落大意。
[典例示范]
(2016·浙江高考阅读C节选) 
Viewing childhood development as a scientific investigation throws light on how children learn, but it also offers an inspiring look at science and scientists.Why do young children and scientists seem to be so much alike? Psychologists have suggested that science as an effort — the desire to explore, explain, and understand our world — is simply something that comes from our babyhood.Perhaps evolution (进化) provided human babies with curiosity and a natural drive to explain their worlds, and adult scientists simply make use of the same drive that served them as children.The same cognitive (认知的) systems that make young children feel good about figuring something out may have been adopted by adult scientists.As some psychologists put it, “It is not that children are little scientists but that scientists are big children.”
53.What is the main idea of the last paragraph?
A.The world may be more clearly explained through children’s play.
B.Studying babies play may lead to a better 
understanding of science.
C.Children may have greater ability to figure out things than scientists.
D.Ones drive for scientific research may become 
stronger as he grows.
[解题样板]
第一步:读文章,概括段意
最后一段谈到要从科学研究的角度看待儿童的发展,说我们追求科学的态度其实源于我们的儿童时代。由此推断,该段主旨是“研究婴儿的游戏或许有助于更好地理解科学”。
第二步:析选项,斟酌判断
[答案] B

A
(2017·贵阳市高三年级监测考试试卷)
My daughter went to see The Wild One recently and she commented that Marlon Brando was wearing jeans so long ago.Of course he helped set the trend, so that got me thinking about the link between films and trends in fashion.Fashion and films have gone hand in hand for long.The Wild One is a good example: it appeared in 1954, starring Brando.Dressed in a black leather motorcycle jacket, leather cap and jeans, he created a look which is still considered “cool” today.Everyone from Madonna to a middle­aged man is seen wearing the classic leather motorcycle jacket.
Another strong influence on fashion trends was Breakfast at Tiffany?s, starring Audrey Hepburn.She made famous the simple black dress that looks perfect at either a cocktail party or just standing around an expensive department store like Tiffany?s with a pastry and coffee in your hand, as Audrey Hepburn does in the film.She looks so elegant, wearing simple but beautiful dresses, big dark glasses and a string of pearls around her neck.Audrey Hepburn still influences women?s fashion with her “Tiffany?s look”.
In more modern times, the film star Uma Thurman created a major fashion trend when she appeared in the film Pulp Fiction, made in 1994.Her style was very simple.Her black trousers, crisp white shirt and hairstyle were copied by women in the world.
Influencing fashion trends can often be about timing.The movie Memoirs of a Geisha came just in time to start a trend in Japanese fashion.It starred the Chinese actress Zhang Ziyi, who wore beautiful silk kimonos (和服), and it won an Oscar for Costume Design.Many travel companies picked up on the trend and ran “geisha trips” to Japan.The film has also led to a regained interest in kimonos.It is now quite common to see young Japanese women wearing kimonos not just on traditional occasions, but at various social events.The fashion is also beginning to spread to western countries.
语篇解读:本文主要讨论了电影和时尚之间的关系。
1.What is the best title for the passage?
A.Films and fashion B.Stars fashion
C.Influential films	  D.Film cultures
解析:标题归纳题。第一段的第三句“Fashion and films have gone hand in hand for long.”开篇点题,再结合全文的整体内容可推知,本文主要讨论了电影和时尚之间的关系。
答案:A 
2.Who will people associate Madonna wearing the leather motorcycle jacket with?
A.Zhang Ziyi.	  B.Audrey Hepburn.
C.Uma Thurman.	  D.Marlon Brando.
解析:细节理解题。根据第一段的“Dressed in a black leather motorcycle jacket, leather cap and jeans ...is seen 
wearing the classic leather motorcycle jacket.”可知,麦当娜的皮革摩托夹克会让人联想到演员Marlon Brando。
答案:D 
3.What is implied in the film Breakfast at Tiffanys 
according to the passage?
A.One can be active by wearing black.
B.One can be elegant by wearing simple.
C.One can be famous by looking perfect.
D.One can be stylish by eating at Tiffanys.
解析:推理判断题。根据第二段内容尤其是倒数第二句“She looks so elegant, wearing simple but beautiful dresses, big dark glasses and a string of pearls around her neck.”可推知,电影Breakfast at Tiffanys映射出一个人可以通过简单的衣着表现出优雅。
答案:B 
4.What does the film Memoirs of a Geisha lead to?
A.The popularity of the Chinese actress.
B.The worldwide reading of geisha stories.
C.The recovery of interest in kimonos.
D.The “geisha trips” to social events.
解析:细节理解题。根据最后一段的倒数第三句“The film has also led to a regained interest in kimonos.”可知,电影Memoirs of a Geisha使人们重新对和服产生了兴趣。
答案:C 
B
(2017·郑州高三二模)The history of Teachers Day traces back to the Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD).According to the record, during the Han and Jin dynasties, on August 27 each year, the birthday of Confucius, the emperor would go to the Confucius temple and pay tribute (敬意) to the ancient philosopher followed by court officials, and would also invite royal teachers to the imperial court for a banquet.On this day, teachers around the nation enjoyed a days vacation and were given dried meat as gifts.
Normally, an ancient teacher?s income included salary, accommodation and festival gifts.There was no fixed tuition fee.Generally the parents paid teachers according to their household income.Both money and basic foodstuff could be paid in exchange for tuition.
In private schools, teachers always received money or gifts from the host family at certain festivals or at the beginning and end of each semester.
The festivals in which teachers received gifts varied from region to region, while the most valued ones were the Duanwu, Mid­Autumn and Chinese New Year festivals,  as well as Confucius? birthday and the private tutor?s birthday.
Among all the gift­giving festivals, the first meeting gift was a must.When students met their private tutors for the first time, they had to kneel down to Confucius? spirit tablet and then to their private tutors, before presenting a “gift”.
语篇解读:本文是说明文,主要介绍了中国教师节的由来。
5.The passage mainly talks about ________.
A.the teachers in ancient China
B.the Teachers Day in ancient China
C.the teachers high positions in ancient China
D.the teachers salaries in ancient China
解析:主旨大意题。根据全文大意可知,本文主要讲了中国教师节的历史,包括其由来、礼仪等。所以选B。
答案:B 
6.How long has the Teachers Day been in China?
A.1,500-2,500 years. B.2,000-3,000 years.
C.3,000-4,000 years.	 D.4,000-5,000 years.
解析:推理判断题。根据第一段的第一句“The history of Teachers Day traces back to the Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD).”可知,应选A。
答案:A 
7.What is the special gift for the teachers on the Teachers’ Day during the Han and Jin dynasties?
A.A higher position.	  B.A day free.
C.500 liang silver coins.	  D.Days vacation.
解析:细节理解题。根据第一段的最后一句“On this day, teachers around the nation enjoyed a day’s vacation and were given dried meat as gifts.”可知,在教师节这一天,全国的教师都可以休假一天,并且得到肉干作为礼物。
答案:B 
8.Whats the main idea of the last four paragraphs?
A.Where teachers could get gifts in ancient China.
B.Why teachers got gifts in ancient China.
C.How teachers were presented with gifts in ancient China.
D.When teachers received gifts in ancient China.
解析:段落大意题。文章后四段主要介绍了教师收学生礼物的情况,在哪些时间和场合收礼。A、D两项都只提到一方面,应排除。B项文章未提及。
答案:C 
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