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当前位置: 高考学习网 > 2018年高考英语通用版二轮专题复习三维课件:题型3 阅读理解 第4讲 词义猜测题

2018年高考英语通用版二轮专题复习三维课件:题型3 阅读理解 第4讲 词义猜测题

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* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 由同位语“the first and only animal companion”的解释说明可以猜出beagle为“一种动物”。 分析 (2015·天津高考阅读C节选) In the library, I found my way into the “Children’s Room.” I sat down on the floor and pulled a few books off the shelf at random. The cover of a book caught my eye.It presented a picture of a beagle.I had recently had a beagle, the first and only animal companion I ever had as a child. 典例 通过本句中的定义“the same way light passes through a window”可知,transparent应意为“透明的”。 分析 (2015·北京高考阅读C节选) Transparent animals let light pass through their bodies the same way light passes through a window. 典例 根据下文的举例“like anger or anxiety”可推知,画线部分的意思应是“消极的”。 分析 (2016·全国卷Ⅲ阅读D节选) Readers also tended to share articles that were exciting or funny, or that inspired negative feelings like anger or anxiety, but not articles that left them merely sad. 典例 根据上文“By translating the rich and humourous text of Love’s Labour’s Lost into the physical language of BSL”中的translating可知,interpretation与translating同义,意为“翻译”。 分析 (2017·全国卷Ⅱ阅读A节选)By translating the rich and humourous text of Love’s Labour’s Lost into the physical language of BSL, Deafinitely Theatre creates a new interpretation of Shakespeare’s comedy and aims to build a bridge between deaf and hearing worlds by performing to both groups as one audience. 典例 根据上文语境,upbeat应与上文中的“tired of”意义相反,故本题正确选项为A项。 分析 (2015·福建高考阅读E节选)If you’re tired of wandering around the gym wasting time and becoming bored, you can attend an upbeat group fitness class that’ll keep your workout on track.  73.The underlined word “upbeat” in the second       paragraph probably means “________”.     A.cheerful        B.average     C.serious                         D.temporary 典例 根据后面的原因状语从句“Because we can watch the neighbours react.”不难得知apparently应为“肯定”的答复,其意思是“显然地”。 分析 (2017·全国卷Ⅱ阅读D节选)Scientists have found that all kinds of plants give out VOCs when being attacked.It’s a plant’s way of crying out.But is anyone listening?Apparently.Because we can watch the neighbours react. 典例 典例 (2016·全国卷Ⅲ阅读C节选)There are also varieties developed to suit specific local conditions.One of the very best varieties for eating quality is Orleans Reinette, but you’ll need a warm, sheltered place with perfect soil to grow it, so it’s a pipe dream for most apple lovers who fall for it. 10.What does the underlined phrase “a pipe dream”       in Paragraph 3 mean?     A.A practical idea.   B.A vain hope.     C.A brilliant plan.	         D.A selfish desire. 分析 根据连接词so可知上下文之间存在着因果关系,故我们需要从上文中寻找答案。由上文中的“One of the very best varieties for eating quality is Orleans Reinette, but you’ll need a warm, sheltered place with perfect soil to grow it ...”可知,尽管Orleans Reinette是很好的品种,但是对各项条件的要求很高,因此大多数喜欢它的人种植它的希望会落空。故选择B项。 根据构词法知识我们可知,un­为否定前缀,­ness为名词后缀,easy (舒适)为词根。因此,我们可猜测uneasiness为“不安;担忧”之意。 分析 (2016·全国卷Ⅰ阅读D节选) A silence in a conversation may also show stubbornness, uneasiness, or worry. 典例 根据画线词dead所在句子的前一句可知,一些物质使光发散;而本句中的前半句说其他的物质吸收光,根据常识我们可以推知应该是“完全地”阻止光的传播。故正确答案为D项。 分析 (2015·北京高考阅读C节选) The objects around you are visible because they interact with light.Light typically travels in a straight line.But some materials slow and scatter (散射) light, bouncing it away from its original path.Others absorb light, stopping it dead in its tracks. 64.The underlined word “dead” in Paragraph 3 means        ________.     A.silently  B.Gradually  C.regularly D.completely 典例 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 词义猜测题是历年高考必考的一类题型,它可以是对一个单词的意义的推断,也可以是对一个短语或句子的意义的推断;既可以考查生词的意义,也可以考查熟词的新意,还可以是对替代词所替代内容的判断。在阅读理解题中,所考查的词或短语的意义往往不停留在字面上,而要根据短文提供的语境,通过阅读上下文,根据已知的信息或常识来推测尚不熟悉的词或短语的含义。第4讲              词义猜测题
要做好词义猜测题,考生必须熟练掌握《考试大纲》规定的词汇,在平时的训练中还要注意积累生词和短语,掌握构词法的基本知识,对于各种前、后缀的变化形式了然于心。还要学会根据上下文语意进行合理推测,掌握一定的解题技巧。下面介绍5种行之有效的猜词技巧,希望对考生提高阅读理解猜测词义题的解题能力有所帮助。5大猜词技巧,巧妙破解词义猜测题技巧(一) 利用上下文线索猜测词义
1.重述 
作者为了使某一难词或术语的含义更清楚,通常会使用常用、简明的词或词组对其进行解释,这就是重述。重述部分通过逗号与句子的其他部分隔开(有时也使用破折号、冒号、分号或括号)或用信号词引导。常见的信号词有:or, namely, that is, in other words, that is to say, to be more exact, to put in another way等等。
2.
作者常常通过给某些词汇下定义来帮助读者理解词义,尤其在一些科普类、社科类及与专业内容相关的文章中。下定义时,作者通常使用信号词,如i.e., is, are, is/are called, mean, refer to, known as等等。
3.
作者常常会通过对某一难词给出具体的例子,帮助考生理解该词的词义。举例常用的信号词有:such as, such ...as, for example, for instance, like, including, especially等。
4.
在同一句、同一段或同一篇文章中,作者为了避免语言的单调、重复,有时会使用意思相同或相近的词。因此,考生只要读懂上下文,知道其中一个词的意思,就能猜出另外一个词的意思。
5.
有时作者会用表示对比或转折的信号词连接意思相反的两个词或句子,这时就可根据反义词线索猜测词义。表示对比或反义的信号词/词组常见的有:(whether)...or, unlike, but, yet, however, while, although, nevertheless, instead, rather than, in contrast, on the contrary, on the other hand等。
技巧(二) 
在英语句子中,同位语或同位语从句、定语从句、状语从句等都起着解释说明、补充或限定的作用,因此也能提供猜测词义的线索。
技巧(三) 
有时单词或短语所在的上下文中没有明显的解释说明性线索,这时可根据上下文的逻辑关系进行推理,以确定某一难词或短语的意义。
技巧(四) 
英语中的许多词汇,特别是不断出现的新词大多是通过构词法生成的。因此,掌握主要的构词法有助于猜测词义。
技巧(五) 
有时考生可运用自己的常识或背景知识,根据上下文猜测词义。

A
(2017·合肥市高三第一次教学质量检测)
Many young people these days adore the advertised magazine body and become too focused on attaining this image instead of worrying more about what lasts and even grows over time.But could you imagine being considered beautiful for years,  and  suddenly  being ugly after moving to another continent? It is a sad reality that people don’t realize how vacillating the idea of beauty can be from one country to another.
Think of the most typical American girl you know.Is she blonde­haired with white skin and light blue eyes, and does she love shopping or sports? Now place this girl in the heart of Africa, where beauty is placed on what you can control.The Maasai tribe in Kenya focuses on how clean people are, and how stylish their piercings (穿孔) are.This tribe’s culture is to be a brave fighter, so they will cut their skin with patterns in it to show that they are strong.If you don’t look fierce, you are not beautiful.
Other countries like North Korea and South Korea have their own unique views on beauty.In an interview, a woman who has lived in both North Korea and South Korea claims that beauty in North Korea is based more on your ability to be a good woman and wife.She says that women in North Korea are less concerned about fashion and beauty in the physical sense.She says they did have a time when big eyes were a big deal and everyone wanted to get double eyelid surgery.This is something extreme and could perhaps be influenced by Western culture.But don?t you think the idea of getting surgery done to look more attractive is crazy?
语篇解读:本文主要介绍了不同群体的文化差异使得人们对美的观点不尽相同。
1.What does the underlined word “vacillating” in Paragraph 1 probably mean?
A.Inconsistent.  B.Reasonable.
C.Unusual.	  D.Similar.
解析:词义猜测题。根据第一段第二句“But could you imagine being considered beautiful for years, and suddenly being ugly after moving to another continent?”可知,许多年里,你都被认为是美丽的,在你搬到另一个大陆时突然会被认为是难看的。由此可知美会随着地点的不同发生变化,因此此处指人们没有意识到不同国家的人对美的观点是不一致的。inconsistent“不一致的”;reasonable“合理的”;unusual“不寻常的”;similar“相似的”。
答案:A 
2.The Maasai tribe in Kenya is mentioned to show that in their eyes ________.
A.getting dirty is stylish
B.looking fierce is beautiful
C.strong people cut their skin
D.American girls love shopping
解析:细节理解题。根据第二段的“If you dont look 
fierce, you are not beautiful.”可知,肯尼亚的Maasai部落认为看起来凶猛就是美丽的。
答案:B 
3.According to the woman interviewed, women in North Korea now ________.
A.care a lot about their appearance
B.put the beauty of eyes in the first place
C.pay great attention to their ability
D.are crazy about double eyelid surgery
解析:细节理解题。根据最后一段的“claims that beauty in North Korea is based more on your ability to be a good woman and wife”可知,朝鲜的女性现在更加关注她们成为好女人和好妻子的能力。
答案:C 
4.What does the text mainly tell us?
A.Inner beauty is of great importance.
B.Ideas of beauty vary among culture groups.
C.Different ways are needed to admire true beauty.
D.Fashion magazines easily influence young people.
解析:主旨大意题。根据第一段的“It is a sad reality that people don’t realize how vacillating the idea of beauty can 
be from one country to another.”可知,不同国家的人对美的观点是不同的,即不同的文化群体对美的观点不尽相同。
答案:B
B
(2017·长沙市高三年级统一模拟考试)
When going through major life changes, like changing careers, I would change the people with whom I spent the most time.Weve all gone through periods when the people in our lives have changed —  graduation, moving to a new city, getting a new job, joining a new club, etc.I don’t think I need to convince you just how much influence other people can have over your identity.If you’ve ever experienced a major switch in your people environment, then you know that you change as well.
Most people don’t make these choices consciously (意识到地) though.You might consciously decide to spend more time with a certain friend, or you may ask someone out on a date to begin a new relationship.But few people choose their existing friendships deliberately.
There’s no “getting rid of people”.People are always dropping into and out of each others lives.Associations grow into friendships, and friendships fade into associations.
You don’t get rid of anyone.The truth is that in order to make room for new people and new experiences, you may need to loosen up some of your existing connections.
What about loyalty (忠诚)?  Shouldnt you always be loyal to your friends? Once you have a close friend, even if his influence on you is slightly harmful, shouldn’t you stick by him?
Loyalty to a friend sometimes means having to let go.It means being loyal to his highest and best self as well.If someone is destroying his health by smoking, for example, you aren?t showing loyalty by smoking right along with him.True loyalty sometimes requires that you break damaging connections, get yourself back on solid ground, and then decide what you can really do to help your friend.
It can take a lot of courage to tell someone,“Im sorry, but I can’t have you in my life anymore.” But even though this might seem like a selfish act at times, it’s often the best thing for the other person too.If a relationship is holding you back in some way, understand that it’s also hurting the other person.For example, if you work for a violent boss, your acceptance of that situation is considered to be silent approval, encouraging your boss to continue to behave violently.
语篇解读:本文讲述了人的一生会经历很多的改变,从而告诉我们:如何适应改变以及怎样做才是对朋友真正的忠诚。
5.When experiencing major life changes, people may ________.
A.join a new social community
B.influence their friends around
C.choose their friendships purposely
D.have their people environment changed
解析:细节理解题。根据文章第一段中的“When going through ...in your people environment”可知,当经历人生重大改变时,人们也会经历人际环境的改变。即D项正确。
答案:D 
6.What does the underlined sentence in Paragraph 3 mean?
A.Everyone has at least one friend.
B.It is unnecessary to make new friends.
C.Friendship still exists though there are fewer connections.
D.You ought to treat your old and new friends equally.
解析:句意猜测题。根据画线句后的“People are always dropping ...existing connections.”可知,尽管人们之间的联系少了,但友谊依然存在。故选C项。
答案:C 
7.What is the authors opinion on the loyalty to friends?
A.Never betray your close friends whatever happens.
B.Correct their mistakes while you guard their goodness.
C.Stick by your friends even though they do harm to you.
D.Break up with your friends immediately if they smoke.
解析:推理判断题。根据文章倒数第二段的第二句和最后一句可知,作者对朋友忠诚的态度是纠正错误,但要捍卫他们的优点,即B项正确。
答案:B 
8.How should we behave when employed by a violent boss?
A.We should accept what we are told to do.
B.We should stay silent and be in favor of him.
C.We should bravely disobey him if he is wrong.
D.We should give our boss courage to continue.
解析:推理判断题。根据最后一段中的“your acceptance of that situation is considered to be silent approval, encouraging 
your boss to continue to behave violently”可知,如果老板错了,员工就要勇敢地不去服从,即C项正确。
答案:C 
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