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2018年高考英语通用版二轮专题复习三维课件:题型4 阅读七选五 专题过关2课时 1 基础保分课

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* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 文体特点 近三年高考全国卷阅读七选五的文章体裁大都是说明文。这种文体的文章结构严谨、脉络清晰、层次分明、逻辑性强,便于考生在阅读的基础上进行综合理解。 选材特点 近几年高考全国卷阅读七选五的题材大多贴近考生生活,内容与时俱进,主要涉及文化教育、社会生活、体育介绍、未来规划、商务管理、工作职业等内容。 题目形式 阅读材料一般是一篇长度为300词左右的短文,其中正文为240词左右,备选项为60词左右;七个选项都与短文相关,选项多为完整的句子,句型不一,长短不同,七个备选项通常由短到长排列。 设题方式 依据挖空位置,可将5个题目分为段首题、段中题和段尾题;依据句子在文中的作用,可分为“主旨概括句(涉及文章整体内容)”“过渡句(反映文章结构)”和“细节注释句(反映上下文的逻辑关系)”三个类型。 挖空位置 逻辑关系 具体解读 段 首 题 主旨句 常以段落小标题或主题句的形式出现。 承上启下句 此空处的答案能够将上段和下段的内容连贯起来。 段 中 题 例证关系 前后的某句是为了证明另一句而举的例子。例证的形式具有多样性,思维过程基本是归纳(从例子到观点)和推理(从观点到例子)。常见的表示例证关系的标志词语有:for example, for instance,  in fact/as a matter of fact, actually, in other words/that is to say等。 挖空位置 逻辑关系 具体解读 段中题 转折关系 若空格前后两句之间是逻辑上的逆转, 则空格处很有可能表示转折。表示转折关系的标志词语有: but, however, yet, while/though/although, or/otherwise, on the contrary, instead, nevertheless(然而), still, in contrast/comparison, by comparison等。 因果关系 表示因果关系的标志词语有:so, therefore, thus,  consequently(结果), as a result (of), so/such ...that ..., so that ...等。 挖空位置 逻辑关系 具体解读 段 中 题 递进 关系 若空格前后两句之间是逻辑上的层进关系,则空格处很有可能是个表示递进的句子。表示递进关系的标志词语有:too, also, besides, further, furthermore, moreover, likewise, similarly, what’s more, what’s worse, in addition, as well, to make matters worse, not ... but ..., not only ... but also等。 并列 关系 表示并列关系的标志词语有:and, first(ly), second(ly); first, then/next; to begin with, some  ... others  ...; for one thing, for another thing; then/next, finally/last等。 段 尾 题 总结句 用于总结本段内容,常含有总结性的词语。 承上启 下句 此空处的答案能够将上段和下段的内容连贯起来。 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 析题型——高考怎么考一、有什么特点
题型四 阅读七选五
所谓“知己知彼,百战不殆”,要想突破阅读七选五,就要知道高考如何考查。分析近几年的高考英语试题,我们不难发现阅读七选五题型具有如下特点:
根据阅读七选五的题型特点及命题方式,我们可以从“位置”和“作用”两个角度来深刻领悟该题型。

    一文中三种挖空位置,考逻辑思维能力句子在段中的位置不同,所起的作用也不同。命题人之所以采用段首、段尾和段中三种挖空方式,正是利用挖空位置的暗示作用和挖空上下文的提示作用,来考查考生的逻辑思维能力。
二、
    二选项中的几种复现词,考信息获取能力阅读七选五题型考查的实质就是文中信息点和选项信息点的对应,文中信息点与选项信息点通常以词汇复现的方式来“暗中搭桥”,所以找到了复现词汇也就找到了解题关键点。在解题时,通常要关注以下几种复现词找对应。
1.利用词汇复现找对应
词汇复现是为了保证文章前后衔接而经常使用的一种写作手段,即作者在文章上下文不同的位置对同一概念进行重复描述。词汇复现主要是指原词复现、同源词复现、同义词复现、近义词复现、反义词复现等。通过寻找复现词汇可迅速确定答案。
2.利用同范畴词找对应
同范畴词是指跟此词汇相关或同一领域的词汇在文章中同时出现,达到语义衔接的目的。考生可以在选项中找到与此词汇最接近的词,从而达到快而准地确定答案的目的。一般来说,上下文中词汇联系得越接近,上下文的衔接关系就越紧密。
3.利用代词找对应
英语表达中代词出现的频率极高。在精读各段和各选项的过程中,一定要注意句子中出现的人称代词或指示代词,特别是选项中以及空格前后句子中出现的代词。根据代词的单复数及其在句子中所作的成分,可以找出代词指代的名词或句子,从而帮助我们解题。it可指代单数名词或整个句子;they或them指代复数名词;one指代单数可数名词;that指代不可数名词或句子;this指代单数名词或句子;these或those指代前句的复数名词。
通技法——解题怎么办
一、遵循4步解题步骤,解题不走弯路
4 
一、抓特殊词
在考场上,考生用大量的时间完全读懂文章的意思不现实,也没有必要。读文时先快速阅读五个空的前后句,标出相同词、相近词、顺序词、代词、介词等线索词,然后在选项中查找相关的线索词。利用这些线索词寻找答案是很有效的解题方法。
1.抓相同、相近词
[典例1] (2017·Ⅱ节选)
Interruptions are one of the worst things to deal with while you’re trying to get work done.__36__,there are several ways to handle things.Lets take a look at them now.
B.When you want to avoid interruptions at work
分析:本题上文有关键词“Interruptions”和“get work done”,和选项B中的“avoid interruptions”和“at work”属于同词复现,再结合下文“there are several ways to handle things”,便可迅速判定本题答案为B。
[典例2] (2017·Ⅱ节选)
When people try to interrupt you, have set hours planned and let them know to come back during that time or that you’ll find them then.__38__.It can help to eliminate (消除) future interruptions.
E.Its important that you let them know when you’ll be available
分析:本题上文的信息“let them know to come back during that time or that youll find them then”与选项E中的“let them know when youll be available”为“换句话说”的同义表达,故可判定答案为E。
2.抓代词
[典例] (2015·Ⅰ节选)
Trust is a learned behavior that we gain from past experiences. __36__ Trust is a risk. But you can’t be successful when there’s a lack of trust in a relationship that results from an action where the wrongdoer takes no responsibility to fix the mistake.
A.Learn to really trust yourself.
B.It is putting confidence in someone.
C.Stop regarding yourself as the victim.
D.Remember that you can expect the best in return.
E.Theyve been too badly hurt and they can’t bear to 
let it happen again.
F.This knowledge carries over in their attitude toward their future relationships.
G.Seeing the positive side of things doesnt mean 
you’re ignoring what happened.
分析:根据空格前后的两个句子,空格前说“信任是我们从过去经历中获得的一种后天习得的行为”,空格后说“信任是一种风险”,中间的句子应该说“信任是……”。可是,七个选项中没有以“trust”开头的句子,但B项中有“It is ...”的句子,其结构与前后句一致,意思与前后句匹配,由此推断出B项中的It指代trust,故选B项。
3.抓顺序词
[典例] (2013·Ⅰ节选)
Business management is a term used to describe the techniques of planning, direction, and control of the operations of a business. __73__ One is the establishment (制定) of broad basic policies with respect to production; sales; the purchase of equipment, materials and supplies; and accounting. __74__ The third relates to the establishment of standards of work in all departments. Direction is concerned primarily with supervision (监管) and guidance by the management in authority. __75__
A.Control includes the use of records and reports to compare actual work with the set standards for work.
B.In this connection there is the difference between top management and operative management.
C.Examples of nonprofit businesses include such organizations as social service agencies and many hospitals.
D.However, some businesses only seek to earn enough to cover their operating costs.
E.The second aspect relates to the application of these policies by departments.
F.In the theory of business management, organization has two main aspects.
G.Planning in business management has three main aspects.
分析:可先做74题,根据本段中的关键词One(基数词),The third(序数词)可知,以One开头的句子和以The third开头的句子中间,应该是第二条,与E项中的“The second aspect ...”相呼应,故选E项。
再接着做73题,根据本段中的三个关键词One(基数词),The second(序数词),The third(序数词),可以推出,前句应该选含有three的句子,故73选G项。
4.抓介词
[典例] (2014·Ⅰ节选)
The jobs of the future have not yet been invented.__36__ By helping them develop classic skills that will serve them well no matter what the future holds.
D.So how can we help our kids prepare for jobs that dont yet exist?
分析:根据空格后的“By helping them develop classic skills ...”(通过帮助他们培养……的经典技能)可知,介词By表示方式,空格处应该用how开头的句子,故选D项。
二、
英语的句、段之间经常会运用关联词表示过渡和衔接,使文章的思路更清楚、逻辑更连贯。语段的句际关系可分为并列、转折、因果、顺序等。阅读时关联词能帮助理清上下文的逻辑关系,把握文章脉络,进而准确、高效地答题。
[典例1] (2013·Ⅰ节选)
Business is the organized approach to providing customers with the goods and services they want. The word business also refers to an organization that provides these goods and services.Most businesses seek to make a profit (利润) — that is, they aim to achieve income that is more than the costs of operating the business. __71__ Commonly called nonprofits, these organizations are primarily nongovernmental service providers.
D.However, some businesses only seek to earn enough to cover their operating costs.
分析:空格前谈企业是获取利润的组织,空格后谈非营利组织,前后句之间是转折关系。因为D项中有表示转折关系的词“However”,故选D项。
[典例2] (2013·Ⅱ节选)
If you find a public speaking course that looks as though it’s going to give you lots of dos and don’ts, walk away! Your brain is so full of what you’re going to be talking about. __54__. As far as we’re concerned, there are basically no hard and fast rules about public speaking.Your audience can be your friends.
G.So trying to force a whole set of rules into it will just make things worse
分析:空格前面一句“Your brain is so full of what youre going to be talking about.(你的大脑充满了要谈的内容。)”表示原因,因此空格处应填表示结果的选项,而G项中的So在此处表示结果。故选G项。
三、不同的文章有不同的结构。从2013~2017年五年的全国卷来看,阅读七选五的体裁大都是说明文。说明文常采用“总—分—总”的结构形式,第一段是要说明的主题,以下几段多是从不同角度来说明问题,最后总结,所以各段之间多是平行关系,经常出现举例说明的现象。如果考查段落标题,要先分析其他标题的语言形式,同一文章中的几个段落小标题基本上是同一语言形式。如果其他标题是名词短语,该题答案也应是名词短语;如果其他标题是祈使句,该题的答案也应是祈使句。如果考查句子结构,正确选项只是某个句子的一个部分,就要看看空后这个部分是不是句子,如果是句子,看看是否有连词,如果没有连词,要选的正确选项就是短语或是带有连词的从句。 [典例1] (2016·Ⅱ节选)
●__37__
Some people may think that a garden is no more than plants, flowers, patterns and masses of color. Others are concerned about using gardening methods that require less water and fewer fertilizers (肥料). __38__.However, there are a number of other reasons that might explain why you want to garden. One of them comes from our earliest years.
●Recall (回忆) your childhood memories
...
A.Know why you garden
B.Find a good place for your own garden
C.Its our experience of the garden that matters
D.Its delightful to see so many beautiful flowers
E.Still others may simply enjoy being outdoors and close to plants
F.You can produce that kind of magical quality in your own garden, too
G.For each of those gardens, write down the strongest memory you have
分析:第37空考查段落标题。根据下一段的段落标题为祈使句可知,此空也应该选祈使句。七个选项中只有A、B选项是祈使句。本段列举了一些人的观点之后,提到“other reasons that might explain why you want to garden”,由此可以推断出本段的主旨就是:你要知道自己为什么要种植花木。故选A项。
再看第38题,根据本段中的“Some people ...Others ...”结构,可以推出此处应该是“Still others ...”,故本题选E项。
[典例2] (2015·Ⅱ节选)
Training for a marathon requires careful preparation and steady, gradual increases in the length of the runs. __36__,buy the best­fitting, best­built running shoes you can find.
A.After six days
B.For a good marathon runner
C.Before you begin your training
D.With each day, increase the distance by a half mile
E.If they still feel good, you can begin running in them
F.Time spent for preparation raises the quality of training
G.Now you are ready to figure out a goal of improving distance and time
分析:从句式结构上看,逗号后是祈使句,没有连词,正确答案要么是带有连词的从句,要么是一个短语,只有A、B、C、E四个选项符合,这样就缩小了选择范围;根据空前句中的preparation(准备)和常识可知是“训练前”,故选C项。
四、
高考全国卷阅读七选五的体裁大多是说明文。段首设空通常考查段落主题句。做题时,要认真阅读下文内容,特别是下文第一、二句,锁定线索信号词,根据段落一致性原则,推断出主题句。如果在段尾设空,则是考查段尾题。段尾通常是结论、概括性语句。注意在选项中查找表示结果、结论、总结等的信号词,如therefore,as a result,thus, hence,in short,to sum up,to conclude,in a word等词语,选项中也可找到前文的同义词句。
[典例1] (2016·Ⅲ节选)
__18__ Fresh fish should smell sweet: you should feel that you’re standing at the ocean’s edge. Any fishy or strong smell means the fish isn’t fresh. 19(A.Do not buy it.) When you have bought a fish and arrive home, you’d better store the fish in the refrigerator if you don’t cook it immediately, but fresh fish should be stored in your fridge for only a day or two. Frozen fish isn’t as tasty as the fresh one.
...
A.Do not buy it.
B.The easiest is to steam it.
C.This is how you can do it.
D.It just requires a little knowledge.
E.The fish will go bad within hours.
F.When buying fish, you should first smell it.
G.The fats in fish are thought to help prevent heart disease.
分析:第18空考查段首主题句。根据段落中提供的细节:新鲜的鱼和不新鲜的鱼的味道,由此可以推出F项为本段的主题句,意为“买鱼时应该先闻一闻”。
[典例2] (2016·)
39(C.Women are also helped by their female genes.) Scientists are still not exactly sure how genes influence aging, but they believe that they do. Some think that a woman’s body cells have a tendency (倾向) to age more slowly than a mans. Others think that a man’s body cells have a tendency to age more quickly.   40  
E.Recent research seems to support both of these possibilities.
分析:本空位于段尾,可推测应该是对前文叙述的总结。空格前面谈了人们的两种想法,此处承接前文语意,对前两种观点予以评价,故选E项“最近的研究似乎对这两种观点中的这些可能性都予以支持”。
以上介绍了四种做阅读七选五题型的方法,这四种方法在解题时是灵活综合使用的,没有先后、优劣之分。考生在平时的训练中要有意识地多应用、多总结,考场才能驾轻就熟、灵活运用,从而提高答题的速度和准度。
试典题——方法巧应用
[典例] (2017·Ⅱ)
Interruptions are one of the worst things to deal with while you’re trying to get work done.__36__,there are several ways to handle things.Lets take a look at them now.
__37__.Tell the person you’re sorry and explain that you have a million things to do and then ask if the two of you can talk at a different time.
When people try to interrupt you, have set hours planned and let them know to come back during that time or that you’ll find them then.__38__.It can help to eliminate (消除) future interruptions.
When you need to talk to someone, dont do it in your own office.__39__, its much easier to excuse yourself to get back to your work than if you try to get someone out of your space even after explaining how busy you are.
If you have a door to your office, make good use of it.__40__.If someone knocks and it’s not an important matter, excuse yourself and let the person know you’re busy so they can get the hint (暗示) that when the door is closed, youre not to be disturbed.
A.If youre busy, don’t feel bad about saying no
B.When you want to avoid interruptions at work
C.Set boundaries for yourself as far as your time goes
D.If youre in the other person’s office or in a public 
area
E.Its important that you let them know when you’ll be 
available
F.It might seem unkind to cut people short when they interrupt you
G.Leave it open when youre available to talk and close 
it when you’re not
[解题示范]
36.本空位于段中,空前是句号,空后是逗号,空处应该是一个承上启下句。本题上文有关键词“Interruptions”和“get work done”,这和选项B中的“avoid interruptions”和“at work”属于词汇复现,故应选B。
37.本空位于段首,空处应该是一个主题句。本题下文有关键词“youre sorry”和“have a million things to do”,这和选项A中的“saying no”和“busy”属于同义表达,故应选A。
38.根据空格前后的两个句子,空格前说“当人们试图打扰你时,你要确定好时间,让他们知道什么时候回来找你或者你去找他们”,空格后说“这样做能帮你消除未来受到打扰的可能”,空格后“It”指代空格处的内容,而E项“让他们知道你什么时候有空非常重要”与前后句衔接紧密,故应选E。
39.根据上文“dont do it in your own office”可知,空格处与上文之间为转折关系。选项D中的“in the other person’s office, in a public area”与上文中的“in your own office”在语义上相反,故应选D。
40.本题上文关键信息“If you have a door to your office, make good use of it.”与选项G中的关键词“Leave it open, close it”等语义相近,其中代词it都是指代上文提到的“door”,故应选G项。

A
(2017·合肥市高三第一次教学质量检测)
Youre growing up.That means you’re probably experiencing lots of changes, all at once.Your body is changing.It might even seem as if your entire self is changing.It can be confusing and even scary.__1__ And it’s good!
Growing up means that you can do more, learn more, and start to make your mark on the world.In order for that to happen, your body produces chemicals called hormones that help both body and mind grow.Hormone levels change constantly, rising and falling.__2__ But it?s partly to blame for intense emotions, surprising reactions, and mood swings.
Because of the way your brain develops, it is somewhat ruled by emotions now and through your teen years.As a result, growing up can seem like an emotional roller coaster!__3__
·Take care of yourself.If you eat right, sleep enough, and get good exercise, your brain will be much more able to deal with the stress.
·__4__ When you feel your moods swinging or you?re upset, or confused, some quiet time will allow you to gather your thoughts and get calmer.
·Practice relaxing your body and deep breathing when you wake up and when you go to bed.__5__ Plus, when stuff happens during the day, you?ll be able to calm yourself quickly with a deep breath or two before you react.Your body is changing.
A.Take a timeout.
B.But the truth is, it happens to every teen.
C.Work out regularly to keep physically fit.
D.This changing is needed for your bodys development.
E.It will help you fall asleep — and start the morning right.
F.Here are a few things you can do to make the ride smoother.
G.Usually, these feelings settle down when you realize what is going on.
语篇解读:本文是一篇说明文,主要介绍了青少年如何应对成长过程中的一些变化。
1.选B 由空前的“confusing and even scary”和空后的“good”可知,空处与上文为转折关系,并引起下文,所以选B项。
2.选D 由空前一句可知,荷尔蒙的水平一直在不断地改变,忽高忽低;D项中的“This changing”与空前的“change”相对应,所以选D项。
3.选F 空前的“an emotional roller coaster”与F项中的“make the ride smoother”相对应,且由下文列举的几个要点可知,F项符合文意。
4.选A 由本段中的“一些安静的时间将使你集中思想,安静下来”可知,A项正确。
5.选E 空前的“Practice relaxing your body and deep breathing”与E项中的“It”对应,空前的“when you wake up”与E项的“start the morning right”对应;空前的“when you go to bed”与E项的“fall asleep”对应。所以选E项。
B
(2017·郑州高三质检)Buying someone you love a gift that expresses your truest feelings isnt always easy.__1__ Here’s how to discover a gift the receiver will love.
•Listen to what others said.
While you may think it is a great idea to surprise someone by giving him or her something that you think is a meaningful gift, it is best just to get them exactly what they have told you.__2__ So forget about what you think they want and get them what they have specifically asked for.
•__3__
In order to show love, we might go big instead of thinking of what really makes the person happy.You might think buying your husband the newest smart TV is perfect, but when you get it home, it lights up the living room like a stadium and is totally wrong for the space.Instead, think smart and practical.
•Make a gift yourself.
__4__ “Do it yourself (DIY)” gifts can allow you to provide something thoughtful for your loved ones without breaking the bank.Besides, they show how special the receiver is to you by putting some time, effort, and love into something handmade.
•Create an experience.
If you want to create a memorable moment, visit websites such as Groupon and LivingSocial, where you can buy the latest tickets for a play, a swimming lesson package, or even something unexpected like a flight lesson.__5__
A.Size doesnt matter.
B.Dont give “lazy” gifts.
C.You dont have to spend a lot of money on a gift.
D.However, when you get it right, the joy they show will make you happier.
E.These are things that can be experienced together and create a lasting memory.
F.Gift receivers are more appreciative of gifts they ask for than those they do not.
G.These kinds of gifts take more effort and time than others, but are well worth them.
语篇解读:本文是一篇说明文。文章主要介绍了如何为自己爱的人挑选礼物。
1.选D 上句提到:给你喜欢的人买一个能表达你最真挚感情的礼物不总是很容易,与此承接的是D项,意为“但是,当你送对礼物时,他们所表现出来的快乐会让你更快乐”。
2.选F 上句提到:虽然你也许认为给他们一个你认为有意义的礼物让他或她惊喜是一个好主意,但是最好送他们告诉过你想要的东西。下句提到:所以不要考虑你认为他们想要的,给他们买他们特别想要的。由此可知F项正确,意为“比起他们没有要求要的礼物,接收礼物的人更赞赏他们要求要的”。
3.选A 根据本段中的“we might go big”及“Instead, think smart and practical.”及所举的例子可知,本段主要介绍了礼物的大小不重要。
4.选C 该空下一句提到:自己动手制作的礼物能让你不用花很多钱,却能给你爱的人一份贴心的礼物。由此可知,应选C项,意为“你没必要花很多钱买一个礼物”。
5.选E 根据该段小标题及该空上一句中的“memorable”可知,应选E项,意为“这些事情是能一起经历,还能引起持久的回忆的事情”。
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