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当前位置: 高考学习网 > 2018年高考英语通用版二轮专题复习三维课件:题型4 阅读七选五 专题过关2课时 2 重难增分课

2018年高考英语通用版二轮专题复习三维课件:题型4 阅读七选五 专题过关2课时 2 重难增分课

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* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 阅读七选五之所以是考生的失分重灾区,是因为一处错选常常会导致多处错选,因而被考生戏称为“多米诺效应”。如何防止连环错现象的发生,在此本书总结出常见6大失分错因,帮考生跳出“连环错”怪圈,力保阅读七选五题型创满分。
因选项特征相似而失分
[典例] (2016·Ⅰ节选)There are three main types of cryptography.37(E) For example, the first letters of “My elephant eats too many eels” spell out the hidden message “Meet me.”
__38__ You might represent each letter with a number, for example.Let’s number the letters of the alphabet, in order, from 1 to 26.If we substitute a number for each letter, the message “Meet me” would read “13 5 5 20 13 5.”
A.It is very hard to break a code without the code book.
B.In any language, some letters are used more than others.
C.Only people who know the keyword can read the message.
D.As long as there have been codes, people have tried to break them.
E.You can hide a message by having the first letters of each word spell it out.
F.With a code book, you might write down words that would stand for other words.
G.Another way to hide a message is to use symbols to stand for specific letters of the alphabet.
[正确答案] 选G
[失误分析]
C.Only people who ... 
G.Another way to hide a ...
C项和G项有相似的宾语message,而且上一段最后一句“...spell out the hidden message ...”中含message一词,因此有些考生看到C选项中的message就会先入为主而误选C项。

考生在遇到两个有相似特征的选项时,要格外关注,仔细比对这两个选项,结合空处所在的上下文语境和前后文的逻辑关系进行作答,切忌因先入为主而误选。
因忽略词汇衔接而失分
[典例] (2016·Ⅱ节选)
●Recall (回忆) your childhood memories
Our model of what a garden should be often goes back to childhood.Grandmas rose garden and Dad’s vegetable garden might be good or bad, but that’s not what’s important.
__39(C)__ — how being in those gardens made us feel.If you?d like to build a powerful bond with your garden, start by taking some time to recall the gardens of your youth.__40__.Then go outside and work out a plan to translate your childhood memories into your grown­up garden.Have fun.
A.Know why you garden
B.Find a good place for your own garden
C.Its our experience of the garden that matters
D.Its delightful to see so many beautiful flowers
E.Still others may simply enjoy being outdoors and close to plants
F.You can produce that kind of magical quality in your own garden, too
G.For each of those gardens, write down the strongest memory you have
[正确答案] 选G 
[失误分析] 部分考生可能会忽略小标题中的“Recall (回忆)”和“childhood memories”,以及前文中的“those gardens”,“recall the gardens of your youth”,后文中的“childhood memories”等,或者没有利用好这些词汇衔接信息,从而误选其他选项。如果利用好这些词汇衔接,会比较容易选出正确选项G项。

英语词汇衔接关系表现为词的复现。词的复现指的是某一词以原词、同义词、近义词、上下义词、概括词或其他形式重复出现在语篇中。文章的句子通过这种复现关系,达到相互衔接、意义完整。阅读七选五语篇的上下文语境中往往有同义词、近义词、近义表达等,甚至有时有相同词汇的重复使用。词汇衔接关系是我们解题很好的线索。 

因忽略关键信息而失分 
[典例] (2017·Ⅰ节选)The friends who introduced me to camping thought that it meant to be a pioneer.  37(C)  
We slept in a tent, cooked over an open fire, and walked a long distance to take the shower and use the bathroom.This brief visit with Mother Nature cost me two days off from work, recovering from a bad case of sunburn and the doctor?s bill for my son?s food poisoning.
I was, nevertheless, talked into going on another fun­filled holiday in the wilderness.__38__Instead, we had a pop­up camper with comfortable beds and an air conditioner.
My nature­loving friends had remembered to bring all the necessities of life.
A.This time there was no tent.
B.Things are going to be improved.
C.The trip they took me on was a rough one.
D.I was to learn a lot about camping since then, however.
E.I must say that I have certainly come to enjoy camping.
F.After the trip, my family became quite interested in camping.
G.There was no shade as the trees were no more than 3 feet tall.
[正确答案] 选A
[失误分析] 考生往往由于把握不准关键信息而造成误选其他选项。根据上文中“We slept in a tent ...”,结合下文“Instead, we had a pop­up camper with comfortable beds and an air conditioner.”可知,作者这次野营没有带帐篷(tent为本题的关键信息),故本题应该选择A项“This time there was no tent.”。

考生如何利用关键信息解题,在解题时要比较文章和选项中的关键词。若匹配,则该选项很可能就是正确答案。具体步骤如下:
(1)阅读各个空格的前后句,标记关键词。关键词包括句中的核心名词或名词词组、数词、代词、连词等;
(2)阅读各个选项并标记关键词;
(3)比较并匹配上述两类关键词,最终确定答案。     

因忽略意义衔接而失分
[典例] (2015·Ⅰ节选)Unfortunately, we’ve all been victims of betrayal.Whether we’ve been stolen from, lied to, misled, or cheated on, there are different levels of losing trust.Sometimes people simply can’t trust anymore.
__37__ It’s understandable, but if you’re willing to build trust in a relationship again, we have some steps you can take to get you there.
A.Learn to really trust yourself.
B.It is putting confidence in someone.
C.Stop regarding yourself as the victim.
D.Remember that you can expect the best in return.
E.Theyve been too badly hurt and they can’t bear to let it happen again.
F.This knowledge carries over in their attitude toward their future relationships.
G.Seeing the positive side of things doesnt mean you’re 
ignoring what happened.
[正确答案] 选E
[失误分析] 部分考生可能忽略了语境中上下文前后句的意义衔接,而误选其他选项。空格上一句“Sometimes people simply cant trust anymore.(有时候人们就是不能再信任别人。)”和选项E“Theyve been too badly hurt and they can’t bear to let it happen again.(他们曾经受过严重伤害,不能容忍这种事情再次发生。)”有意义上的衔接。

对于阅读语篇句子间意义衔接的考查是阅读七选五的常考点之一。考生们在分析语篇段落层次时,可以借助上下文、前后句间的语篇连接词来判断。此外,考生们要真正理解文章的主旨大意,弄清空格前后句子的确切含义,然后根据意义的衔接性从七个选项中选出正确答案。最后,同学们要将所选的选项代入原文,看短文语言是否通顺、逻辑是否合理,从而验证答案。

因忽略逻辑关系而失分
[典例] (2015·Ⅰ节选)•You didn’t lose “everything”.Once trust is lost, what is left? Instead of looking at the situation from this hopeless angle, look at everything you still have and be thankful for all of the good in your life.__40__ Instead, its a healthy way to work through the experience to allow room for positive growth and forgiveness.
A.Learn to really trust yourself.
B.It is putting confidence in someone.
C.Stop regarding yourself as the victim.
D.Remember that you can expect the best in return.
E.Theyve been too badly hurt and they can’t bear to let it happen again.
F.This knowledge carries over in their attitude toward their future relationships.
G.Seeing the positive side of things doesnt mean you’re 
ignoring what happened.
[正确答案] 选G 
[失误分析] 部分考生可能没有注意到本空与后文的逻辑关系而误选其他选项。仔细阅读短文,我们可以看出空格的上文指出要看到生活中积极的一面。下文中的Instead一词说明空格和下文存在着行文逆转,即转折关系。分析七个选项,只有G项(看到事情的积极方面并不意味着你对发生的事情视而不见)合适。

文章中及后面的选项中表示逻辑关系的标志词,是选择答案的重要线索。常见的语篇标志词从细节、逻辑上可分为:
并列或递进关系(firstly, and, or, moreover, whats more, also, neither ...nor ..., either ...or ..., besides, furthermore, in addition to ...);
转折或让步关系(but, however, instead, yet, while, by contrast, on the contrary, rather than, instead of, although, though, even if, even though ...);
概括归纳关系(in short, in brief, in summary ...);

因果关系(so, therefore, thus, as a result, because, for, since, consequently, accordingly, due to, thanks to, because of, for this reason ...);
时间关系(at first, at last, finally, afterwards, in the meantime, later, then ...);
解释例证关系(in fact, for example, for instance ...)。  

因忽略结构衔接而失分 
[典例] (2017·Ⅲ节选)Lots of people find it hard to get up in the morning, and put the blame on the alarm clock.In fact, the key to easy morning wake­up lies in resetting your body clock.__16__ Here’s how to make one.
·__17__ In order to make a change, you need to decide why it?s important.Do you want to get up in time to have breakfast with your family, get in some exercise, or just be better prepared for your day? Once you are clear about your reasons, tell your family or roommates about the change you want to make.
·Rethink mornings ...
·Keep your sleep/wake schedule on weekends ...
·Keep a record and evaluate it weekly ...
A.Get a sleep specialist.
B.Find the right motivation.
C.A better plan for sleep can help.
D.And consider setting a second alarm.E.If the steps you take are working, keep it up.
F.Stick to your set bedtime and wake­up time, no matter the day.
G.Reconsider the 15 minutes you spend in line at the cafe to get coffee.
[正确答案] 16.选C 17.选B
[失误分析] 部分考生可能因忽略了文章的结构而误选其他选项。本篇的短文结构为“总-分”。 第16题空格前句介绍了早上起床变得简单的关键是重新设置生物钟,后一句提出要制定一个调节计划,因此得出第16题的答案为C项。根据17题后的“In order to make a change”和“Once you are clear about your reasons”与B项的“Find the right motivation.”语义相对应,故本题应选B项。

文章的层次通常包含两种:一种是分析整篇文章的层次,另一种是分析每个段落内部的层次。一般说来,高考的英语文章,无论是整篇文章,还是每个独立的语段,在行文逻辑上,通常采用的都是“总-分”或“总-分-总”结构。考生们在阅读文章时,要有意识地理清文章的思路。


A
(2017·陕西省高三教学质量检测试题一)
How to Choose a Topic for Your Paper 
No matter what research paper you write, the first and most important step is to choose the topic.__36__ Here are some tips for you to follow.
谨防“连环错”针对练
To choose a good topic, you’ll have to ask yourself some important questions.Is there enough research available on this topic? Is the topic new and unique enough that I can offer fresh opinions? Is it related to my subject and future occupation?
...
A.Have a clear picture of organization in mind.
B.Be courageous and change it.
C.Is it likely that they will also be writing about your topic?
D.However, many students are discouraged by this first step.
E.Take a trip to your local library or university library.
F.Choose a topic that you have very strong emotion in.
G.They are likely to have great ideas.
36.解析:本文主要介绍了如何选择论文主题。根据上文的“the first and most important step is to choose the topic”可推知,上下文表示转折,因此空处应表示“可是很多学生在第一步就受挫”所以选D项。
答案:D 
B
(2017·石家庄市高三复习教学质量检测一)
Whether you are at Disneyland or another Disney park, you will usually find a nighttime show that will be showing.__36(C)__ Read this article to find out how you can get a good seat for an evening event at any Disney park.
●Plan on seeing the show in advance.
...
●Do your research.
...
●Arrive to the event early.
...
●__40__
If you must leave to do something, make sure that it’s extremely quick, and try to have another member of your party stay in your spot while you are away.
A.Stay in the same area.
B.Enjoy the show with a friend.
C.Its usually much more enjoyable if you can get a good 
seat.
D.This is especially important if you arrive closer to the event time.
E.In order to get a good spot, plan on arriving an hour before the event.
F.Therefore, look at the schedule before your trip, or at least the day before.
G.Youll see a list of places in the park that are the best 
for viewing that event.
40.解析:本文主要介绍了在迪士尼公园举办的晚会上找到好座位的方法。根据空处所在位置可知,空处为该段标题,是该段的主旨,根据选项特征可锁定在A、B两项上;根据该段中的“make sure that its extremely quick, and try to have another member of your party stay in your spot while you are away”可知,该段主要介绍“要待在座位上,如需出去,可由伙伴占座”的方法,故A项最适合做该段标题。
答案:C
(2017·长沙市高三年级统一模拟考试)
Everyone makes mistakes.__36(B)__.Making a mistake at work, however, can be more serious.It may cause problems for your employer and even affect the companys bottom line.Evil consequences will finally come down to you.Simply correcting your mistake and moving on may not be an option.When you make a mistake at work your career may depend on what you do next.
Admit your mistake.
Tell your boss about your mistake immediately.The only exception is that you make an insignificant error that will not affect anyone.Otherwise, don?t try to hide your mistake.__37__.
Present your boss with a plan to fix your mistake.
When you go to your boss to admit your mistake, you must have a plan for correcting it.Present your plan clearly.Tell your boss how long it will take to carry out your plan and if there are any costs involved.
...
A.Apologize for your mistake but dont beat yourself up
B.Usually you can correct your error or just forget about it and move on
C.You can use your lunch hour or come into work early
D.Pointing fingers wont help you if you make a mistake
E.Strengthen your friendship with your boss
F.Youll feel ashamed if your colleague takes the 
responsibility for you
G.You will look terrible if someone else discovers it
37.解析:上文提到,每个人都会犯错误,但是在工作中犯错常常导致严重后果。本题由空前一句可知,不要掩盖错误;据此可以判断,选G项,陈述了掩盖错误的后果。
答案:D
(2017·沈阳市高三年级教学质量监测一)
However, different people have different ways of being smart.Some people are considered street smart.They may not have a strong education.But they are good at dealing with people and problems in the real world.Other people might be book smart.__40__ But they may not be so smart when dealing with people or real­world problems.
A.Is it a  good thing or something bad?
B.This means they have spent many years in school.
C.In fact, maybe that person is no longer your friend.
D.But the most common meaning of smart is to be intelligent.
E.That means they like what you are wearing and your 
physical appearance.
F.In fact, a child who has a smart mouth makes rude comments, not smart ones.
G.But if something smarts, it can be unkind or hurtful, either physically or mentally.
40.解析:根据上文可知,其他人可能是书本智慧(书呆子);根据下文可知,但是他们在与人打交道或处理现实问题时就可能没那么聪明。B项“这意味着他们在学校接受了多年教育”承上启下,符合语境。故选B。
答案:BE
(2017·武汉市武昌区高三年级调研考试)
How I trained myself to get up earlier 
I am not what you would call a morning person.Im a writer.But getting up early has become really important for me.These are the techniques that I used to follow to learn to get up earlier:
...
Naps (打盹) and earlier nights.Sleep is like money in the bank.If you overdraw by getting up early, you have to pay in some other time.__38__ Also, in the long run, going to bed an hour or so earlier meant that I was getting the right amount of sleep.
...
A.This technique works every time.
B.Decide what time I wanted to get up.
C.Initially, I did this by having short naps after lunch.
D.None of these is rocket science, but they are worth sharing.
E.It makes you feel good to tell people “Oh, I get up at 6 am.”
F.When I add blogs, it feels as if I have no free hours in the daytime.
G.I dont want to fall over everything when doing basic 
tasks when I’m half­asleep.
38.解析:本文主要介绍了如何让自己养成早起的习惯。本段告诉我们睡眠的总时间要有保证,空前讲到提前起床失去的睡眠时间需要用其他时间来弥补。故选C项“最初,我通过午饭后小睡来弥补”。
答案:
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