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2018年高考英语通用版二轮专题复习三维课件:题型5 完形填空

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上传时间:2018/3/16

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* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 文体    题目数量  题目类型 2017 2016 2015 卷Ⅰ (记叙文) 卷Ⅱ (记叙文) 卷Ⅲ (记叙文) 卷Ⅰ (记叙文) 卷Ⅱ (夹叙夹议文) 卷Ⅲ (夹叙夹议文) 卷Ⅰ (记叙文) 卷Ⅱ (夹叙夹议文) 句内层次题 10 9 10 11 10 8 8 11 句组层次题 7 9 7 6 7 8 8 6 语篇层次题 3 2 3 3 3 4 4 3 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 题型五 完形填空
3

句内层次题:是指空格的答案由空格所在句子决定。句组层次题:是指空格的答案由与空格相距不远的一组句子决定。语篇层次题:是指空格的答案由整篇文章的内涵决定。

[命题分析]研究近3年的全国卷完形填空试题可发现,文章体裁多为记叙文或夹叙夹议文。完形填空的设题方式大致可分为句内层次、句组层次及语篇层次三种题型。在难易程度上,句内层次题和句组层次题较容易,考生只需要结合语境理解空格所在句或相邻的几句就可以确定答案,且句内层次、句组层次题考查最多,能保障考生取得基本分数。但高考是选拔性的考试,每篇完形填空总会有2~3个比较难的语篇层次题成为考生取得高分的拦路虎。二轮复习在确保句内层次题和句组层次题全做对的前提下,要全力争取语篇层次题不失分。对于完形填空题,很多考生存在一个解题误区:不先去通读一遍文章,上来就做题。在不理解文意的情况下,做题就只能是“只见树木,不见森林”,脱离开语篇这个大语境,其结果是不断地涂改、不断地修正,既浪费了时间,又导致出错率大增。所以,无论考场时间再紧,也要坚持用一分钟的时间大体浏览一下全文再做题。否则,省掉一分钟,可能悔一生。一篇挖去20个空格的完形填空,要想耐着性子把残缺不全的文章读完,的确需要很强的定力和高度集中的注意力。怎样读文才高效,下面给大家介绍一下读文的方法和技巧。
一、读文抓要点,不必过于求全
读文时要克服一个错误心态——必须理清弄明。对于一篇挖去20个空格的短文,再加上考场时间的紧迫性,要完成这样的细读任务是不可能的,再者说,也没有这个必要。初读文章只要明白了大意(who, when, where, what),掌握了梗概,总体把握了文章内容、结构、时态和语态变化,情节的展开,结果的形成,就达到了目的,完成了任务。
二、,,
一般来说,完形填空文章首句不设空,这就给了我们认真审读的有利空间。通过首句的研读,我们应该能达到以下目的:
1.了解文章体裁
例如2017年全国卷完形填空的首句:
In 1973, I was teaching elementary school ...
根据首句交代的时间、人物及关键词“teaching elementary school”可以判断出文章的体裁为记叙文,并且要叙述作者在教学中发生的故事。接下来在第一遍略读时就要尽量找出一些具体的人物、事件等,为后期补全信息做准备。
2.了解文章题材
例如2016年全国卷完形填空的首尾句:
首句:Larry works with Transport Drivers, Inc.One morning in 2009, Larry was __41__ ...
尾句:His __60__ most likely saved the womans life.
通过首尾句我们可以判断本文的题材特征为:人物故事类,救助他人的故事。根据文章首句及第二句可知,文章写的是2009年的一天上午,一位司机Larry在工作途中遭遇到的一件事情,再结合最后一句话我们可以判断出文章讲述的英雄事迹应该与救人有关。
三、,,
文章每段的大意通常都是相对独立完整的,并且每段基本都有一个主题句,主题句的位置又通常在首句或尾句。因此我们只要重点阅读每段的首尾句,基本就可以找到文章的发展脉络和结构。
2016年全国卷的完形填空一共有244个单词,分为四段,每段的意思都是相对完整的,我们再仔细查看每段的首句或尾句:
第一段:(尾句)Two good bursts from the extinguisher and the fire was put out.
根据这句话可以判断,Larry遇到了火灾并且火灾最后被成功扑灭。
第二段:(首句)The man who had his bright lights on __48__ and told Larry he had __49__ an emergency call.
(尾句)Larry told her that he had already put out the fire and she should not move __55__ she injured her neck.
根据这两句话可以判断出有一男子参与了救援,还有一位女士被困在车内了。
第三段:(首句)Once fire and emergency people arrived ...
(尾句)They let him and the other man go.
根据这两句话可以判断出救援人员已经到了,作者及另一男子被允许离开。
第四段:(尾句)His __60__ most likely saved the womans life.
根据以上各段的首句或者尾句,我们基本可以判断出故事的梗概。
四、,,
夹叙夹议类的文章通常是先进行叙述,然后再在段落的结尾或文章的末尾展开议论,说明故事所包含的哲理或总结出作者的观点。阅读此类文章时,考生要重点关注议论的部分,从而总结出文章的主旨。
例如:... the boy of our story was a pretty smart guy, even if he couldnt always get what he wanted.He started to say to himself, “This isn’t__58__.I don’t have the apple and I’m feeling miserable as well.There’s __59__more I can do to get the apple — that is unchangeable — but we are supposed to be able to __60__our feelings.If that’s the case, what can I do to feel better?”
上面文章先进行叙述,然后在结尾展开议论,采用了叙议结合的写作方法。通过阅读此部分,我们可以总结出本文的主旨:文章通过一个男孩想摘取诱人的苹果但是未能成功的哲理故事,告诉人们要学会放弃,拥有健康的心态才是最明智的。
通过第一步的初读文章,明白了文章大意、内容梗概后,接下来便是做题的过程。完形填空80%以上的题目都是基础题目,也就是上文提到的句内、句组层次题。这些题目完全可以根据掌握的文章大意,再结合本句或相邻的几个句子做到连读边填。随着一个个空缺被填充,文章被还原,文意也就越来越显现、越明朗,做题就会越来越顺手。所以做完形填空第二步的正确做法是:能填的尽量填一填,把残缺的信息补完全。
句内层次题的解题信息分布在本句内,在读懂文
意的前提下,利用本句的一些解题信息就可直
接做答。对于此类题目,考生可以边读边填,
将原文信息尽量复原。
1
完形填空中经常会考查一些习惯搭配、固定结构和固定句式,这时考生就需要运用习惯搭配及固定结构来解题。
[典例] (2016·) The man who had his bright lights on 48.came_over and told Larry he had __49__ an emergency call.
49.A.returned B.receivedC.made	 D.confirmed
分析:本题可以利用习惯搭配解题。make a call为习惯搭配,意为“打电话”。make an emergency call意为“打紧急呼救电话”。
答案:C 
2
完形填空的语篇中往往渗透着诸如文化科学、历史地理、风俗民情等方面的知识。考生在做题时,若能积极地调动自己掌握的文化背景知识和生活常识,巧妙地加以运用,特别是注意中西文化的差异,将会大大简化复杂的分析与判断过程,节省宝贵的时间,从而轻松地做出正确判断。
[典例] (2017·)The 46.story began during my first week at college.I watched as the ASL Club __47__ their translation of a song.Both the hand movements and the very 48.idea of communicating without speaking 49.attracted me.What I saw was completely unlike anything I had experienced in the __50__.This newness just left me __51__ more.
47.A.recorded	    B.performed
C.recited	   D.discussed
50.A.end	  B.past
C.course	  D.distance
51.A.showing	  B.acting
C.saying	  D.wanting
分析:这三道题可以利用生活常识和文化背景解题。根据生活常识,第47题我观看的应是表演,即“我观看美式手语俱乐部的成员通过手语表演(performed)了一首歌”;第50题我经历的自然发生在过去,即“我所看到的与我以前的经历完全不同”,in the past“在过去”;作者看了手语表演之后,感觉耳目一新,决定学习手语,故第51题应为“这种新颖性让我想要(wanting)了解更多”。
答案:47.选B 50.选B 51.选D 
3
完形填空文章的上下文之间以及句子内部之间往往有着一定的逻辑关系,它使句子的各个成分之间形成一定的对应关系。考生可以根据这种逻辑关系找出与未知填空相对应的已知成分,将它作为线索,通过它推断出未知填空的答案。
[典例] (2017·)After that, feeling the need to 52.explore further, I decided to drop in on one of ASL club’s meetings.I only learned how to 53.sign the alphabet that day.Yet instead of being discouraged by my 54.slow progress, I was excited.I then made it a point to __55__ those meetings and learn all I could.
55.A.chair	  B.sponsor
C.attend	  D.organize
分析:本题可以利用对应成分分析法解题。
I then made it a point to __55__ those meetings and learn all I could.
答案:C 
从上述分析可以看出,第55题与learn形成对应关系。因为有and这一并列连词,并且and前后意思应该一致,表示“我确保参加(attend)所有的集会,学习我所能学到的一切”,故选C。
4
此方法是通过分析未知填空前后文与已知信息之间的逻辑关系来确定答案,主要应用于完形填空的两类题型:一是考查连接词和起连接词作用的短语;二是考查上下文的逻辑关系。
[典例] (2016·) We went 10­1 and I was named most valuable player, __28__ I often had crazy dreams in which I was to blame for Miller’s 29.accident.
28.A.and	  B.then
C.but	  D.thus 
分析:本题可以利用逻辑关系解题。本空考查连词。连词的作用就是将其前后文的已知信息衔接起来,因此可以利用逻辑关系来解题,即通过分析该未知填空前后文的已知信息的逻辑关系来确定本题应该填入表达何种逻辑关系的连词。
答案:C 
通过上述分析得知本空前后文的已知信息是明显的转折关系,因此答案是but。and表示并列关系;then表示顺承关系;thus表示因果关系。
5
上下文语境具体体现为:全文的中心主线和主题、作者的态度倾向和评价、上下文语篇衔接、句际和段际关系。在句内层次题中,我们通常可以通过上下文语境暗示,即根据已知信息,推导出正确答案。
[典例] (2016·) She gave me a __53__ smile, nodded while listening patiently,and then printed out the 54.ticket immediately.
53.A.shy	  B.comforting
C.familiar	  D.forced 
分析:本题可以利用语境暗示分析法解题。根据下文“nodded while listening patiently ...immediately” 可知她的举止对“我”是非常友好、善意的,因此,从此暗示中我们可以快速从四个选项中选出comforting, comforting smile“让人感到欣慰的笑容”。
答案:B 
句组层次题是比句内层次题稍难一级的题目,其解题信息分布在空格前后的一组意群之中,解题时需前瞻后顾,综合意群信息解答。即本句信息不足填,空格前后再找信息源。
1
复现是一种语义衔接手段,它通过原词、同义词或近义词、反义词、上义词、下义词、同源词或同根词等重复出现来表达某一概念,使整篇文章上下连贯,有机地衔接在一起。因此,考生可根据文章的具体情况,理解文章的结构和语境,利用文章中的复现现象来选择正确的答案。
[典例1] (2017·)While high school does not generally encourage students to explore new aspects of life, college sets the stage for that exploration.I myself went through this __41__ process and found something that has changed my 42.experience at college for the better: I discovered ASL — American Sign Language (美式手语).
41.A.searching   		B.planning
C.natural	  D.formal
分析:本题可以利用语义复现解题。本题为近义词复现。第41空是上文“explore”的近义词复现,故选A项。
答案:A
[典例2] (2015·) Dad had a green comb.He bought it when he married Mum.Every night, he would hand me his __26__ and say, “Good girl, help Daddy clean it, OK?”
26.A.bag	  B.wallet
C.comb	  D.brush
分析:本题可以利用语义复现解题。本题为原词复现。第26空是上文“Dad had a green comb.”中comb (梳子)的原词复现,故选C项。
答案:C 
2
在高考完形填空文章中,我们一定要在快速阅读文章的过程中,仔细找出能够反映作者态度和感情色彩的重要词汇,它们往往是名词、形容词、副词或动词。这些词汇通常是我们做题时重要的参照线索,可以帮助我们快速确定某些题目的正确答案。
[典例] (2017·)Freddy was an average 44.student, but not an average person. He had the rare balance of fun and compassion (同情). He would 45.laugh the loudest over fun and be the saddest over anyones __46__.
46.A.misfortune	  B.disbelief
C.dishonesty	  D.mistake
分析:本题可以利用态度或感情色彩关联解题。根据上文及空格前的“the saddest”可知,弗雷迪对别人的不幸(misfortune)是感到最伤心的。只有不幸的事才能令人伤心,故A项符合语境。disbelief“不信,怀疑”;dishonesty“不诚实的行为”;mistake“错误”。
答案:A 
3
在句组层次题中,利用逻辑关系解题同样是一种重要的方法。
[典例] (2016·) Hundreds of people have formed impressions of you through that little device (装置) on your desk.And theyve never actually 41.met you.Everything they know about you 42.came through this device, sometimes from hundreds of miles away.__43__ they feel they can know you 44.just from the sound of your voice.That’s how powerful the 45.telephone is.
43.A.Thus	  B.Yet
C.Then	  D.Indeed
分析:本题是典型的考查上下文逻辑关系的题目,可以利用逻辑关系解题。
答案:B 
通过上述对本空前后文已知信息的分析,能够发现上下文之间是明显的转折关系,因此答案可以确定为选项B.Yet。thus“因此”;then“随后”;indeed“的确,确实”。
4
在句组层次题中,有些题目我们往往也需要通过上下文的语境暗示来解题,即根据已知信息,推导出正确答案。
[典例] (2016·) 43.As he got closer, he found 44.another vehicle upside down on the road.One more look and he noticed __45__ shooting out from under the 46.disabled vehicle.Larry pulled over, set the brake and 47.got_hold_of the fire extinguisher (灭火器).Two good bursts from the extinguisher and the fire was put out.
45.A.flames	  B.smoke
C.water	  D.steam
分析:本题可以利用语境暗示分析法解题。上文中提到Larry发现另一辆车翻倒在地,然后再根据下文他“got hold of the fire extinguisher (灭火器)”,“Two good bursts from the extinguisher and the fire was put out.”等这些语境暗示可知,他仔细看后,注意到从车下面冒出的应该是火焰(flames)。 答案:A 

(2017·陕西省高三教学质量检测试题一)
Jenna had graduated from her middle school and was lucky enough to be admitted to Westwood College.She was ready for new __1__ at the college and filled with confidence. __2__ she didnt expect it that college life was quite  __3__.In the first week, Jenna went to tryouts for cheerleaders. She was competing against very talented girls, and she knew it would be __4__ for her to be selected.Two hours later, the __5__read a list of the girls for a second tryout.Her heart __6__ as the list ended without her name.Feeling __7__,she walked back to her dormitory carrying her schoolbag full of homework.
Arriving at the dormitory, she started with __8__.She had always been a good math student,  but now she was __9__. She moved on to English and history,  and was __10__ to find that she didn?t have any trouble with those subjects.Feeling better, she decided not to __11__ math for the time being.
The next day Jenna went to see Mrs.Biden about being on the school __12__.Mrs.Biden wasn?t as enthusiastic as Jenna.“I?m sorry, __13__we have enough __14__ for the newspaper already.Come back next year and we?ll talk then.” Jenna smiled __15__ and left.“Why is college so different?” she sighed.
Later in math class, Jenna devoted herself to figuring out the problems that had given her so much __16__.By the end of the class, she understood how to get them right. As she gathered her books, Jenna decided she?d __17__ to try to fit in with her new school.She wasn?t sure if she?d   __18__,but she knew she had to try.College was just as her mom had said,“You will feel like a small fish in a big pond   __19__ a big fish in a small pond.The challenge is to become the __20__ fish you can be.”
语篇解读:本文主要讲述了主人公Jenna在进入大学后所经历的变化及其努力适应的过程。
1.A.decisions      	B.challenges   
C.problems    	  D.exercises
解析:根据上文的“lucky enough to be admitted to Westwood College”及“new”可推知,新的大学生活对Jenna来讲有许多挑战,故选B。
答案:B
2.A.However 	  B.Therefore   
C.Besides     	  D.Otherwise
解析:根据语境可知,上下文表示逻辑上的转折关系,故选A。however“然而”。
答案:A 
3.A.normal   	  B.necessary   
C.different    	  D.desperate
解析:根据第三段的“Why is college so different? she sighed.”可知,大学生活与Jenna想象的很不一样。
答案:C 
4.A.simple   	  B.troublesome 
C.certain     	  D.difficult
解析:根据上文“competing against very talented girls”可推知,Jenna感觉自己很难被选上,与下文的“the list ended without her name”呼应。
答案:D 
5.A.editor    	  B.judge       
C.boss        	 D.candidate
解析:根据语境可知,是由裁判宣布进入下一轮选拔的名单的。
答案:B 
6.A.stopped  	  B.jumped    
C.sank       	  D.changed
解析:根据“as the list ended without her name”可推知,得知没有自己的名字,即没有进入下一轮选拔,Jenna心情沉重。heart sinks意为“心情沉重,情绪低落”。
答案:C 
7.A.awful    	  B.lonely      
C.happy      	  D.strange
解析:由于被淘汰了,Jenna感觉糟糕(awful)。
答案:A 
8.A.English  	  B.history     
C.science     	  D.math
解析:根据下文的“She had always been a good math student”可推知,Jenna开始做自己擅长的数学作业。
答案:D 
9.A.working  	  B.struggling   
C.complaining 	  D.improving
解析:根据“but”的转折含义可推知,曾经擅长的数学现在让她感觉有些吃力。
答案:B 
10.A.bothered 	  B.ashamed   
C.pleased    	  D.shocked
解析:根据下文“she didnt have any trouble with 
those subjects”可知,Jenna很高兴发现在英语和历史学科上没有遇到任何问题,也与下文的“Feeling better”呼应。
答案:C 
11.A.show up            B.make for
C.give up             D.prepare for
解析:根据上文的“Feeling better”和Jenna做数学作业不理想的情况可推知,Jenna暂时不准备数学了。prepare for“把……预备好”;show up“出现”;make for“向……移动,促成”;give up“放弃”。
答案:D 
12.A.committee	  B.team
C.newspaper  	  D.radio
解析:根据下文的“for the newspaper already”可推知,Mrs.Biden在校报工作。
答案:C 
13.A.and      	  B.so          
C.or          	  D.but
解析:根据语境可知,上下文表示逻辑上的转折关系,故选D。
答案:D 
14.A.writers   	  B.players     
C.speakers    	  D.readers
解析:根据“for the newspaper already”并结合选项可推知,Jenna是去校报应聘作者工作,结果遭到了拒绝。
答案:A 
15.A.brightly  	  B.weakly     
C.widely      	 D.happily
解析:根据上文“Come back next year and well talk then.”可知,Jenna被校报拒绝了,因此只是淡淡地笑着离开了。
答案:B 
16.A.courage  	  B.lack        
C.hope       	  D.sorrow
解析:根据上文可知,Jenna在数学学习上感到吃力,这些问题使她很伤心。
答案:D 
17.A.hesitate  	  B.refuse      
C.continue    	  D.attempt
解析:根据下文的“try to fit in with her new school”“but she knew she had to try”可推知,Jenna并没有气馁,决定继续试着适应新的学校。
答案:C 
18.A.succeed              B.complete
C.agree                D.accompany
解析:根据“but she knew she had to try”可推知,Jenna对于自己能否成功并没有把握,但是知道自己必须去尝试。
答案:A 
19.A.in the hope of          B.in honor of
C.in case of              D.instead of
解析:根据语境可知,此处表示对比。instead of“而不是”。
答案:D 
20.A.tallest    	  B.best        
C.hardest     	  D.gentlest
解析:结合空前一句可推知,此处表示“成为最好的鱼”,在文中引申为“做最好的自己”。
答案:B 
高考担负着区分考生、选拔人才的功能,每篇完形填空中总有2~3道这样的较难题目来担负着区分考生的功能。这类题目的解题信息不局限于某一句或某一句群,而是分散在某一段或几段甚至全篇,要求考生理解整篇文章,抓住全文的脉络、作者的思想、意图或主人公的心理,然后进行准确的推理、判断,从而做出正确的选择,我们通常称这类题目为语篇层次题。对于此类题目,一定要坚持这样一个原则——不急于解答,读完文章最后一个词后综合思维再做判定。“语篇层次题”解题口诀
句内句组不能解,暂把题目放一放。
此类问题不要慌,放眼全篇细思量。
语义复现和结构,逻辑关系能用上。
文章脉络与首尾,五大方法来帮忙。
1
在语篇层次题中,我们同样可以利用语义复现解题。
[典例] (2016·)Lainey finished third grade.
She had good grades and could read 41.above grade level, but she did not like to read.On a family car trip, her Aunt Dede pulled out a copy of Harry Potter, as a surprise for her 42.niece.But Lainey took one look at it, 43.rolled  her eyes, and said, “Borrrring!”
Aunt Dede, a teacher, had read the book to her students, and they loved it.44.Even the youngest children in the class were 45.attracted by the story.They 46.listened with great interest, and then 47.enthusiastically joined in grand conversations about Harry?s adventures.
“How can you say it?s __48__? Have you read it?” asked Aunt Dede.
48.A.amazing   B.boring 
C.ridiculous	  D.humorous 
分析:本题可以利用语义复现解题。本题为原词复现。上文“and said,Borrrring!”中的Borrrring是第48空的原词复现,故选B项。
答案:B 
2
完形填空的文章往往采用总分对照结构,总述是对分述的总结和概括,而分述是对总述的展开和详述,两者之间有着明确的相互支撑、相互印证的对照关系。总分对照结构可以为我们提供重要的解题线索。
[典例] (2016·)Powerful, yes, but not always __46__.For years I dealt with my travel agent only by phone.Rani, my faceless agent whom I’d never met 47.in_person,_got me rock­bottom prices on airfares, cars, and hotels.But her cold voice really 48.annoyed me.I sometimes wished to 49.find another agent.
One morning, I had to 50.book an immediate flight home for a family emergency.I ran into Rani?s office 51.for_the_first_time.The woman sitting at the desk, 52.seeing my madness, sympathetically jumped up.She gave me a 53.comforting smile, nodded while listening patiently, and then printed out the 54.ticket immediately.“What a wonderful lady!” I thought.
Rushing out 55.gratefully I called out over my shoulder, “By the way, what’s your name?” “Im Rani,” she said.I turned around and saw a 56.pleasant woman with a big smile on her face waving to wish me a safe trip.I was 57.speechless! Why had I thought she was cold? Rani was, well, so 58.nice.
Sitting back in the car on the way to the airport, I figured it all out.Rani?s 59.friendliness — her warm smile, her nods, her ?I?m here for you? 60.attitude — were all silent signals that didn?t travel through wires.
46.A.direct	  B.useful
C.easy	  D.accurate
分析:本题可以利用总分结构对照分析法解题。此题在一个总述句“Powerful, yes, but not always __46__.(电话的威力的确强大,但并不总是准确的)”中。这是为什么呢?下文叙述的事件给了我们本空的答案。因此,仅仅看到本题所在句子包含的信息是不够的,还要看后文的相关信息,这个关键信息就在下文的分述部分。只要抓住分述部分作者态度的转变过程,本题就迎刃而解了。
总结一下分述部分,很容易判断出第46题答案选D项accurate。因为下面分述部分讲的是作者在电话里觉得Rani是冷漠的,但见面后印象完全转变,由此可知,电话的威力虽然强大,但并不总是准确的。
答案:D 
3
在语篇层次题中,利用逻辑关系也是一种重要的解题方法。
[典例] (2015·) Dario and his mother loved their new apartment.The living room was large enough for their piano.That night, the two of them 36.sat side by side at the piano.They played jazz music to celebrate their new home.The loud 37.music filled the room and made them feel very happy.
The next morning, __38__,their happiness disappeared.Someone had left a 39.note under their door during the night.One of their neighbors had written to complain (抱怨) about the sound of the piano.Darios mother asked the building superintendent (管理员) if he knew anything about it.But he said that they were all40.nice people and he couldnt imagine any of them had done that.Later that morning, Dario suggested that they write a letter to their 41.neighbors and apologize for their playing.
38.A.therefore	  B.however
C.otherwise	  D.instead
分析:本题是典型的考查上下文逻辑关系的题目,可以利用逻辑关系解题。
答案:B 
通过上述对本空前后文已知信息的分析,发现上下文是明显的转折关系,因此答案可以确定为选项B。
4
我们主张在做完形填空的时候要合理想象,其实就是合理思考和推理,不能脑洞大开,甚至“胡思乱想”,必须“随文应变”,不可“一意孤行”,要随着文段发展脉络,调整预测偏差。
[典例] (2017·)
...
The 46.story began during my first week at college.I watched as the ASL Club 47.performed their translation of a song.Both the hand movements and the very 48.idea of communicating without speaking 49.attracted me.What I saw was completely unlike anything I had experienced in the 50.past.This newness just left me 51.wanting more.
After that, feeling the need to __52__further, I decided to drop in on one of ASL club?s meetings.I only learned how to 53.sign the alphabet that day.Yet instead of being discouraged by my 54.slow progress, I was excited.I then made it a point to 55.attend those meetings and learn all I could.
...
52.A.exercise	  B.explore
C.express	  D.explain
分析:本题可以利用文章发展脉络解题。所节选部分文章发展脉络为:大学第一周我观看了美式手语俱乐部的表演→我被表演所吸引→我想进一步学习更多手语方面的知识→我参加俱乐部的会议。根据文章发展脉络可知,第52题是在作者观看了美式手语俱乐部的表演后感受到了进一步“探索”(explore)的必要。故答案为B项。
答案:B 
5
记叙文类的完形填空在很多情况下不仅仅是在讲一个故事,而是要通过故事来升华主题,而升华的内容往往在文章结尾处,与首段内容形成首尾呼应关系。因此,我们做题不是只到最后一空,而是要看到最后一个词,而且要学会“回头看”(重点看首段)。不要因我们过早地放松,忽略了首尾呼应关系,在最后一两道题上留下遗憾。
[典例] (2017·)Hannah Taylor is a schoolgirl from Manitoba, Canada.One day, when she was five years old, she was walking with her mother in downtown Winnipeg.They saw a man 36.eating out of a garbage can.She asked her mother why he did that, and her mother said that the man was homeless and hungry.Hannah was very   37.upset.She couldn’t understand why some people had to live their lives without shelter or enough food.Hannah started to think about how she could 38.help,_but, of course, there is not a lot one five­year­old can do to solve (解决) the problem of homelessness.
...
Hannah is one of many examples of young people who are making a __55__ in the world.You can, too!
55.A.choice	  B.profit
C.judgement	  D.difference
分析:本题可以利用首尾呼应关系解题。文章首段讲到汉娜在五岁时看到无家可归的人在垃圾箱里捡东西吃,她很难过。通过首段尾句“Hannah started to think about how she could 38.help,_but, of course, there is not a lot one five­year­old can do to solve (解决) the problem of homelessness.”可知她很想帮助这些人。而末段“Hannah is one of many examples of young people who are making a __55__ in the world.You can, too!”这句话与首段呼应。根据文章可知,汉娜的做法是众多年轻人中的一个例子,通过她的努力对这个世界有不小的影响。make a difference 为固定短语,意思是“有影响,起作用”。故选D项。
答案:D 

★注:铺阴影题目为语篇层次题。
(2017·贵阳市高三年级监测考试试卷)
Each year around Christmastime, I think back to the homeless dog that appeared at the family farm. His visit became a gift of __1__ that my family still talk about.It was a few days after Christmas in 1999.A __2__   dog wandered onto the front porch (走廊) and __3__ in as if hed lived here all his life.He quickly decided that his __4__
was to guard the house against squirrels.Every time he saw __5__,hed bound off past the garden to the trees, __6__ at the top of his lungs.Then he’d walk back to his position on the __7__,ever vigilant (警惕的).
Inside, the house was full of __8__.My 91­year­old father­in­law, Jim Cravens, was seriously ill.The family had all __9__ to see to his care, to cook and to welcome   __10__.Jim and his wife, Dorothy, were beloved ones of the community (社区).Whenever anyone __11__ the house to do anything or walk next door to my brother­in­law’s house, the black dog followed.He would __12__ wait until we were done, follow us home __13__ lie down on the porch.
This __14__ visitor gave us something new to talk about.Whose dog was he? Did someone __15__ along the road? Did he __16__ to stay? Anyway, it would be dark soon, and he would be __17__ on the winter night.Jim sat in the rocking chair by the front window where he could __18__   the happy black dog?s comings and goings.
My __19__ said he wanted to live long enough to see the new millennium (千禧年), and he did.He __20__ away on January 2.That was the day the black dog left.
Later we heard that he was a rescued dog about a mile and a half from the farm.They named him Bogart.
语篇解读:本文主要讲述了一只无家可归的狗来到作者家门前的走廊里并给作者一家人带来慰藉的故事。1.A.surprise     B.comfort    
C.disaster    	  D.decision
解析:根据全文内容可推知,这只狗给作者一家人带来了安慰,故选B。
答案:B
解析:根据下文第12空前的“the black dog followed”可知,那只狗是黑色的。
答案:C 
2.A.white        	B.yellow     
C.black      	  D.brown
3.A.settled   	  B.walked    
C.ran        	  D.slept
解析:根据空后的“as if hed lived here all his life”
可推知,一只无家可归的狗在走廊安顿下来,感觉就像它一直待在那里一样。settle in表示“安顿下来”。
答案:A 
4.A.thought  	  B.method    
C.view       	  D.job
解析:根据空后的“was to guard the house against squirrels”可推知,此处表示“它的职责”。
答案:D 
5.A.one      	  B.it          
C.that       	  D.this
解析:根据语境可知,此处应用one指代一只松鼠(squirrel)。
答案:A 
6.A.barking  	  B.singing    
C.reading    	  D.laughing
解析:根据上文的“to guard the house against squirrels”可知,狗看到松鼠就叫。bark表示“(狗)吠叫”。
答案:A
7.A.ground   	  B.porch      
C.table      	  D.carpet
解析:根据上文的“dog wandered onto the front porch (走廊)”可知,此处指狗又回到了走廊。
答案:B 
8.A.joy      	 B.sadness    
C.shock      	  D.excitement
解析:根据下文的“My 91­year­old father­in­law, Jim Cravens, was seriously ill.”可推知,当时家里因为老人的重病而充满忧伤。
答案:B
9.A.waited   	  B.moved     
C.gathered   	  D.left
解析:根据“The family had all __9__ to see to his care, to cook”可推知,家里人聚在一起来看护老人。gather“聚集”。
答案:C 
10.A.doctors   	  B.passengers 
C.readers    	  D.visitors
解析:根据语境可推知,此处表示欢迎来探望的人。
答案:D
11.A.bought   	  B.entered    
C.left        	  D.rented
解析:根据下文中的“walk next door to my brother­in­law’s house”可推知,此处表示的是“当有人离开时”。
答案:C
12.A.hopefully 	  B.anxiously  
C.hurriedly   	  D.patiently
解析:根据下文的“wait until we were done”可知,狗很有耐心。
答案:D 
13.A.and      	  B.or         
C.but        	  D.yet
解析:根据语境可知,wait, follow和lie down是并列的三个动作,故用连词and。
答案:A 
14.A.happy    	  B.curious    
C.eager      	  D.fearful
解析:根据下文的几个疑问句可推知,这只狗引起了大家的好奇,空处与下文“gave us something new to talk about”呼应。
答案:B 
15.A.pick him up      	B.drive him back
C.drop him off            D.turn him down
解析:根据首段的“the homeless dog”可知,大家猜测这只狗是不是被人丢弃的,故选C。
答案:C 
16.A.pretend  	 B.agree      
C.intend     	  D.need
解析:根据下文的“Anyway, it would be dark soon, and he would be __17__ on the winter night.”可推知,大家对这只狗接下来的安置有所担忧,所以有了“他打算留下来吗?”的疑问。
答案:C 
17.A.sorry     	  B.hot        
C.warm      	  D.cold
解析:根据空后的“on the winter night”可知,冬天夜里是寒冷的。
答案:D 
18.A.watch    	  B.hear       
C.feel       	  D.imagine
解析:根据空后的“the happy black dogs comings 
and goings”可知,此处表示“看到这只快乐的黑狗的进进出出”。
答案:A 
19.A.father         B.father­in­law
C.brother               D.brother­in­law
解析:根据上文中的“My 91­year­old father­in­law, Jim Cravens, was seriously ill.”可推知,病重的岳父想活过新的千禧年。
答案:B
20.A.ran      	  B.died       
C.went       	  D.passed
解析:根据上文提到老人活过了新的千禧年并结合下文的“away on January 2”可知,应选D。pass away意为“去世”。
答案:D 
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