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2018年高考英语通用版二轮专题复习三维课件:专题复习3部曲 1 专题入门

资料类别: 英语/课件

所属版本: 通用

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上传时间:2018/3/16

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* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 目前的英语教学往往存在对句子成分不够重视的问题,以至于不少考生在这方面比较薄弱。殊不知正确划分句子成分和判断句子结构是学好英语的必备基础,这不仅对语法填空和短文改错等题型的解答有直接的影响,还对写好作文、理解完形填空和阅读理解中出现的长难句有重要意义。所以在此很有必要给考生们补上这一课。
句子由各个组成部分构成,这些组成部分叫作句子成分。句子成分可分为主语、谓语、宾语、表语、定语、状语、补语和同位语等。
习惯于发号施令,
偶尔也会被赶下台(用“—”标注)

在句子中,主语是谓语所表示动作的发出者。主语一般位于句子开头,且不能省略。但在某些特定的句式里,如:疑问句、倒装句、祈使句、感叹句等,句子主语也可以“下台”而位于谓语动词之后或省略。能够充当主语的词和短语主要有名词(短语)、代词、数词、动名词(短语)、动词不定式(短语)和从句等。当主语为从句等时,为避免头重脚轻,可用it作形式主语。
The most obvious example is probably Christmas, which 
is celebrated around the world.
最明显的例子可能就是圣诞节了,它被世界各地的人们庆祝。(名词短语作主语)
Mastering a foreign language will be of great help in our life.
掌握一门外语对我们的生活非常有帮助。(动名词短语作主语)
Whether she will be able to come remains a question.
她是否能来仍然是一个问题。(从句作主语)
[典例1] (2016·Ⅱ语法填空)Recent __66__ (study) show that we are far more productive at work if we take short breaks regularly.
分析:分析句子结构可知,that引导宾语从句,if引导状语从句,空格处应为主句的主语,主句的谓语动词是show,故应填study的复数形式。答案:studies
[典例2] (2013·Ⅱ短文改错)Have tea in the late afternoon provides a bridge between lunch and dinner, which might not be served until 8 o’clock at night.
分析:分析句子结构可知,逗号之后为非限制性定语从句,逗号之前为主句;在主句中,provides为句子的谓语动词,它之前的部分是句子的主语,因此句首的动词原形Have使用错误,应使用动名词形式。
答案:Have→Having
坚决服从主语“领导”,
执行命令雷厉风行(用“”标注)

    
谓语用来描述主语的行为动作、状态或特征,常位于主语之后。谓语可由动词和动词短语、系表结构以及“助动词/情态动词+实义动词”充当,有时态、语态和语气的变化,同时又受到主语人称和数的制约。判断的依据是看主语和动词之间的关系,如果两者之间是主动关系就用主动语态,如果是被动关系就用被动语态。
When he got up at 7:00 am, a big plan occurred to him.
他早上七点起床时,脑海里突然有了个大计划。(动词短语和动词作谓语)
The watch is necessary in our daily life, but its function  is too simple and dull.
手表在我们日常生活中是必要的,但它的功能太简单呆板了。(系表结构作谓语)
We may have different opinions in organizing class activities.
对于组织课堂活动,我们可能有不同的观点。(“情态动词+实义动词”作谓语)
[典例1] (2017·Ⅰ语法填空)When fat and salt __64__(remove) from food, the food tastes as if it is missing something.
分析:分析句子结构可知,此处为动词作谓语,由tastes可知空处应用一般现在时;又fat and salt是动词remove的承受者,故应用被动语态。
答案:are removed
[典例2] (2017·Ⅲ短文改错)About one month after this photo was taken, I entered my second year of high school and become a new member of the school music club.
分析:分析句子结构可知,and连接并列谓语entered和became。
答案:become→became
一直受到压制,
有时“翻身农奴把歌唱”(用“”标注)

宾语表示谓语动作的对象,一般位于及物动词和介词的后面,受到主语的限制和制约,宾语一般由名词、宾格代词、动名词(短语)、动词不定式或从句充当,根据需要也可用it作形式宾语。宾语在被动结构中才会“翻身农奴把歌唱”。
I managed to persuade my classmates into accepting my idea.
我设法说服我的同学接受我的想法。(不定式作宾语)
Suddenly he thought of seeing the beautiful views of the city again before setting out.
他突然想在启程之前再看看这座城市的美景。(动名词短语作宾语)
Our success depends on how well we can cooperate with one another.
我们的成功取决于我们彼此良好合作的程度。(从句作宾语)
[典例1] (2017·Ⅱ语法填空)This included digging up the road, __63__ (lay) the track and then building a strong roof over the top.
分析:分析句子结构可知,该句的主语为This,谓语动词included后由and连接了三个动名词短语作宾语。
答案:laying
[典例2] (2016·Ⅲ短文改错)I showed them I was independent by wear strange clothes.
分析:分析句子结构可知,by为介词,其后应用动名词短语作介词的宾语。
答案:wear→wearing
最会察言观色,
就看“主子”脸色(用“[ ]”标注)

表语与前面的系动词一起构成复合谓语(系表结构),用来说明主语这个“主子”的特征、类属、状态、身份等。可以用作表语的有:名词、代词、数词、形容词、副词、介词短语、不定式(短语)、分词和从句等。
Although the answer seemed [a little strange], nobody but I doubted it.
尽管答案有些奇怪,但只有我对此产生了怀疑。(形容词作表语)
Several minutes passed but the whole class was  [in complete silence].
几分钟过去了,但是整个班级一片寂静。(介词短语作表语)
The important thing is [to learn and control your temper]  so that you may not do or say anything youll regret.
重要的是学会控制你的脾气,这样你可能就不会做或说使你后悔的事或话。 (不定式短语作表语)
[典例1] (2017·Ⅰ语法填空)However, be __69__ (care) not to go to extremes.
分析:分析句子结构可知,空格处在句中作表语,应用形容词形式。
答案:careful
[典例2] (2016·Ⅲ短文改错)At one time, I even felt my parents couldn’t understand me so I hoped I could be freely from them.
分析:分析句子结构可知,系动词be后应用形容词作表语。
答案:freely→free
鞍前马后搞服务,
全心全意“勤务兵”(用“[ ]”标注)

定语是用来描述名词的品质与特征的修饰语,它常和名词构成名词短语。定语服务于它所修饰或限定的名词或代词。单个词作定语时常放在被修饰词之前,而短语和从句作定语时往往放在被修饰词之后。可以用作定语的有:形容词、名词、代词、数词、副词、介词短语、不定式(短语)、动名词、分词(短语)和从句等。
We may have [various] ways [to deal with such a situation].
我们可能有各种各样应付此类情况的方式。(形容词和不定式短语作定语)
All the books [offered by the students] are reported to have been sent to the children in the countryside the other day.
据报道,同学们提供的所有书籍都在几天前送给了乡下的孩子们。(过去分词短语作定语)
How Li Hua regretted the [valuable] time [(that) he had wasted on the computer games]!
李华多么后悔浪费在玩电脑游戏上的宝贵时间!(形容词和从句作定语)
[典例1] (2015·Ⅰ语法填空)A study of travelers __68__ (conduct) by the website TripAdvisor names Yangshuo as one of the top 10 destinations in the world.
分析:分析句子结构可知,________ (conduct) by the website TripAdvisor作定语,又因conduct与主语A study之间为动宾关系,故填conduct的过去分词形式。
答案:conducted
[典例2] (2017·Ⅰ短文改错)It was a relief and I came to a suddenly stop just in the middle of the road.
分析:分析句子结构可知,stop在此处为名词,应用形容词修饰。
答案:suddenly→sudden
行踪飘忽不定,
却对动词“情有独钟”(用“[ ]”标注)

修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,说明动作或状态特征的句子成分,叫作状语。一般表示行为发生的时间、地点、目的、方式、原因、条件、让步、程度等意义。状语可由形容词、副词、介词短语、动词不定式(短语)、分词、状语从句等充当。状语在句子中的位置很灵活,所以说它“行踪飘忽不定”。常见情况为:通常在句子基本结构后,强调时放在句首;修饰形容词或副词时,通常位于被修饰词之前;表示时间、地点、目的的状语一般位于句子两头,强调时放在句首,地点状语一般放在时间状语之前;一些表示频度的副词(如often, almost等)作状语通常位于be动词、助动词、情态动词之后,实义动词之前。高考中一般考查副词修饰动词的用法,故说它对动词“情有独钟”。
[After a week’s trip], he returned home, [tired but very happy].
旅行了一周后,他回到了家,感到很累但很高兴。(介词短语和形容词作状语)
[To compete]  more effectively with others, more and more people equip themselves with a higher education.
为了更有效地与他人竞争,越来越多的人用更高水平的教育来装备自己。(不定式短语作状语)
[Time permitting], I expect to have more spare time to spend with my friends [so that we can have a better relationship].
时间允许的话,我希望有更多的业余时间和朋友一起度过,这样我们就会有更加良好的关系。 (独立结构和从句作状语)
[典例1] (2016·Ⅲ语法填空)People probably 
cooked their food in large pots, __44__ (use) twigs (树枝) to remove it.
分析:分析句子结构可知,逗号前为主句,逗号后为方式状语,people与use之间是主动关系,故用现在分词。
答案:using
[典例2] (2016·Ⅰ短文改错)Instead, he hopes 
that his business will grow steady.
分析:分析句子结构可知,作状语修饰动词grow应用副词形式。
答案:steady→steadily
始终寄人篱下,
永远成不了“主人”(用“[ ]”标注)

补语是用来说明宾语或主语的性质、状态等的一种句子成分。补语可分为补充说明主语意义的主语补足语和补充说明宾语意义的宾语补足语,所以说它寄人篱下,成不了“主人”。可以用作补足语的有:形容词、副词、名词、介词短语、不定式(短语)、分词和从句等。
We’ll try our best to make our country [more and more beautiful].
我们将尽全力使我们的国家越来越美丽。(形容词作宾补)
Popular science books can help us students [to become more interested in science and nature].
科普书能帮助我们学生对科学和自然更感兴趣。(不定式短语作宾补)
To learn English well, we should find opportunities to hear English [spoken] as much as possible.
为了学好英语,我们应该找机会尽可能多地听英语被说。(过去分词作宾补)
They caught the boy [stealing].
他们抓住这个男孩偷东西。(现在分词作宾补)
[典例1] (2011·)I got on the bus and found a seat near the back, and then I noticed a man __18__ (sit) at the front.
分析:分析句子结构可知,这里应用sit的现在分词sitting在句中作宾补。
答案:sitting
[典例2] (2015·)The position of the classroom with its view made me felt like I was dreaming.
分析:分析句子结构可知,make后用不带to的不定式作宾补,构成make sb.do sth.结构,意为“使某人做某事”。
答案:felt→feel
总是玩失踪,
特殊场合还是“显露原形”(用“[ ]”标注)

对句子中的名词或代词作进一步解释、说明,与前面的成分在语法上处于同等地位的句子成分叫作同位语。英语句子表达中一般情况下是没有同位语的,所以说它爱玩失踪,如果要对前面的名词的具体内容作进一步的说明,这时候就需要同位语,可谓“显露原形”。可以用作同位语的有:名词、代词、数词、介词短语、不定式、动名词和从句等。
They [three] want to travel around the world together on foot.
他们三个想一起步行周游世界。(数词作同位语)
We are going to the local nursing home for the coming Double Ninth Festival, [a holiday] for us to show our respect for the elderly.
我们打算去当地一家敬老院过即将到来的重阳节,该节日展示了我们对老年人的尊重。(名词作同位语)
I hold the opinion [that we should go to help them (to)  overcome the present difficulty].
我认为,我们应该去帮助他们克服目前的困难。
(从句作同位语)
	
[典例1] (2017·)We understand this lesson best __40__ we receive gifts of love from children.
分析:分析句子结构可知,空格处引导的从句作lesson的同位语,应用that引导。
答案:that
[典例2] (2017·)It makes me have a firm belief what there are still many kind and generous people around us.
分析:分析句子结构可知,belief后为同位语从句,应用that引导,that不作成分,也没有任何含义,但不能省去。
答案:what→that

Ⅰ.划分句子成分
1.Great changes have taken place in my hometown in the past ten years.
    

2.One day some of my students were talking about what we would like to be in the future.



3.Music can make our mind in a peaceful state after a whole day of tiring work.
   

    

4.Nowadays, people in many big cities are complaining about the heavy traffic.



5.Every day he was forced to work from morning till night.
   
 
       

6.Word came that the mayor would pay a visit to our school next week.



7.Bathed in the sunshine,  we jumped and cheered with joy.
  

    

8.At the same time,  parents are giving their children too much protection.



9.During holiday seasons, I will live in the countryside, where air is fresh and people are friendly.
     

     

10.Environmental problems are becoming more and more serious all over the world.
    
 
Ⅱ.单句语法填空
1.Anyone, whether he is an official or a bus driver, should be         (equal) respected.
2. (understand) your own needs and styles 
of communication is as important as learning to convey 
your affection and emotions.
3.As John Lennon once said, life is  happens to you 
while you are busy making other plans.
4.Im calling about the apartment you            
(advertise) the other day.Could you tell me more about it?
equally
Understanding
what
advertised
5.Every country has  (it) own banknotes, so it is hard 
to say which is the most beautiful one.
6.It is very difficult for parents to decide whether (have) a second child or not.
7.Your ideas are very interesting, but we need (practice) suggestions to get us out of trouble.
8.I plan to have my daughter  (educate) at the 
best school in this city.
its
to have
practical
educated
9.The only way to succeed at the highest level is to have total belief       you are better than anyone else on 
the sports field.
10.Finally, Li Hua passed the College Entrance Examination and gained            (admit) to a famous university.
that
admission
Ⅲ.单句改错
1.My favorite sport is badminton, which brings me much happy.												                
2.I really have some suggestions, that, I think, will be helpful to you.															           
3.A thief broke into the house at midnight, left the house in a mess.								                       
4.Its also possibly for readers to borrow books from 
college libraries even if they are not students.
												                
happy→happiness
that→which
left→leaving或left前加and
possibly→possible
5.Last Sunday, he went to the library, borrowing two books and then left.										                    
6.Many countries are now setting up national parks which animals and plants can be protected.
							                          
7.He showed his mother the beautiful snake and begged her to let him keeping it.											             
8.I would appreciate it very much if you could give me some advice on how to improve my reading effective.
											                   
borrowing→borrowed
which→where或which前加in
keeping→keep
effective→effectively
9.I feel exciting when I heard the good news.10.And you should also have a belief you are sure to succeed as long as you keep your direction all the time.
                           
exciting→excited
belief后加that
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