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2018年高考英语通用版二轮专题复习三维课件:专题复习3部曲 2 题型一 语法填空

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* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * mother是名词,所填词应作定语修饰mother,故填its。 On my recent visit, I held a lively three­month­old twin that had been rejected by __68__(it) mother. C—68 根据语境并结合空前的the most可知,空处表达最高级意义。故填successful。 The Central London Railway was one of the most __70__ (success) of these new lines, and was opened in 1900. B—70 根据空格前面的some和后面的overweight and heart disease可知,意想不到的副作用不止一种,应用名词的复数形式,故填effects。 This trend, which was started by the medical community (医学界) as a method of fighting heart disease, has had some unintended side __62__(effect) such as overweight and heart disease — the very thing the medical community was trying to fight. A—62 unpleasant为形容词,修饰形容词应用副词形式,故填fairly。 Steam engines were used to pull the carriages and it must have been __66__(fair)unpleasant for the passengers, with all the smoke and noise. B—66 根据空格前面的Even可知,此处表示递进关系,应填比较级的形式表示“更糟的是”,故填worse。 Even __66__(bad), the amount of fast food that people eat goes up. A—66 考查点          年份 有提示词 词性转化 谓语动词 非谓语动词 比较等级 名词的数 代词的格 2017 卷Ⅰ (说明文) 1 2 2 1 1 / 卷Ⅱ(说明文) 3 2 1 / 1 / 卷Ⅲ(记叙文) 2 2 2 / 1 / 2016 卷Ⅰ(记叙文) 2 1 2 / 1 1 卷Ⅱ(说明文) 2 2 1 1 1 / 卷Ⅲ(说明文) 2 2 2 / / / 2015 卷Ⅰ(说明文) 1 2 2 / 1 1 卷Ⅱ(说明文) 3 1 3 / / / 3年统计 16 14 15 2 6 2 卷别· 文体 考查点        卷别· 年份 无提示词 冠词 介词 代词 并列连词 从句连词 其他语境填词 2017 卷Ⅰ(说明文) 1 1 / / 1 / 卷Ⅱ(说明文) 1 1 1 / / / 卷Ⅲ(记叙文) 1 1 / / 1 / 2016 卷Ⅰ(记叙文) 1 1 / / 1 / 卷Ⅱ(说明文) 1 1 / / / 1 卷Ⅲ(说明文) / 1 / 1 2 / 2015 卷Ⅰ(说明文) / 1 / / 1 1 卷Ⅱ(说明文) 1 1 / / 1 / 3年统计 6 8 1 1 7 2 文体 本句中缺少谓语部分,故空格处作谓语,根据下文的时态为一般过去时,所以这里也应用一般过去时,故填managed。 Later, engineers __68__ (manage) to construct railways in a system of deep tunnels (隧道), which became known to the tube. B—68 分析 典例 题号 分号前是一个完整的句子,空格处应为谓语部分,此处是对客观情况的描述,应用一般现在时,根据主谓一致原则可知,应填is。 Fast food __67__(be) full of fat and salt; by eating more fast food people will get more salt and fat than they need in their diet. A—67 本句中缺少谓语部分,故空格处作谓语。因为make与句子主语“Truly elegant chopsticks”之间为动宾关系,故用被动语态;又因空前有might,故填be made。 Truly elegant chopsticks might __42__ (make) of gold and silver with Chinese characters. D—42 分析 典例 题号 本句已有谓语cooked,且空前没有连词,故空处应用非谓语动词。因People与use之间为主动关系,故用现在分词作状语,故填using。 People probably cooked their food in large pots, __44__ (use) twigs  (树枝) to remove it. D—44 本句已有谓语部分are required,故空格处应为非谓语动词。根据be required to do sth.“被要求做某事”可知应填to process。 They are required  __63__ (process) the food that we eat, to recover from injury and for several other bodily functions. A—63 when引导的从句中已经有谓语动词was,且从句中无其他连词,故空处应填非谓语动词。reporter与permit之间是被动关系,故用过去分词表被动。过去分词短语permitted to ...作后置定语,修饰reporter。故填permitted。 But my connection with pandas goes back to my days on a TV show in the mid­1980s, when I was the first Western TV reporter __66__(permit) to film a special unit caring for pandas rescued from starvation in the wild. C—66 空格处位于定冠词the后,由of chopsticks修饰,故空格处需填名词。故填development。 Some people think that the great Chinese scholar Confucius, who lived from roughly 551 to 479 B.C., influenced the __48__ (develop) of chopsticks. D—48 由前面的定冠词the可知,其后应接名词,故填introduction。 This development was only possible with the __69__ (introduce) of electric­powered engines and lifts. B—69 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 题型一 语法填空
析考情——明题型特点
分析全国卷3年的考点分布可以看出,语法填空具有如下特点:
1.文体特点
近3年全国卷八套试题的语法填空主要是说明文和记叙文,材料词数均为200词左右。2017年全国卷Ⅰ和卷Ⅱ为说明文,卷Ⅲ为记叙文。卷Ⅰ主要介绍了一种低脂肪、低盐的饮食趋势及其对人们健康的影响;卷Ⅱ介绍了世界上第一个地下客运铁路在英国开放及其逐渐发展成现在的地铁的过程;卷Ⅲ介绍了Sarah Thomas在学业和诱人的职业面前所做出的选择。话题贴近考生生活,符合高中生的阅读水平,难度适中。2.命题形式
短文设10个空,考查形式分为有提示词和无提示词两种,有提示词设空一般为7个,无提示词设空一般为3个。提示词多为实词,主要考查实词(名词、动词、形容词、副词)的词性转化和基本用法,如动词的时态、语态、非谓语动词、主谓一致;名词的数;形容词和副词的比较等级等。无提示词多考查虚词的用法,主要考查介词、冠词和连词等。考点分布均匀,除了强调句型、倒装句、省略句和情态动词等之外,基础和重点的语法项目都考查到了。3.命题规律
语法填空命题规律主要体现在:
(1)从句子结构及语法形式入手考查句子常识和基础语法,语篇中的句子结构和常见的语法形式是命题重点;
(2)从词汇的本义、转义和前后缀的变化入手考查词性转化,词性转化以实词中的名词、动词、形容词、副词为主。循流程——找解题入口
研考点——通解题技法
[典题尝试]课前先自主完成,课堂听课才有针对性 (2017·全国卷Ⅰ)
There has been a recent trend in the food service industry toward lower fat content and less salt. This trend, which was started by the medical community (医学界) __61__ a method of fighting heart disease, has had some unintended side __62__ (effect) such as overweight and heart disease — the very thing the medical community was trying to fight.
Fat and salt are very important parts of a diet. They are required __63__ (process) the food that we eat, to recover from injury and for several other bodily functions. When fat and salt __64__(remove) from food, the food tastes as if it is missing something.As __65__ result, people will eat more food to try to make up for that something missing.Even __66__(bad), the amount of fast food that people eat goes up.Fast food __67__ (be) full of fat and salt; by __68__ (eat) more fast food people will get more salt and fat than they need in their diet.
Having enough fat and salt in your meals will reduce the urge to snack (吃点心) between meals and will improve the taste of your food. However, be __69__ (care) not to go to extremes.Like anything, it is possible to have too much of both, __70__ is not good for the health.
 (2017·全国卷Ⅱ)
In 1863 the first underground passenger railway in the world opened in London. It ran for just under seven kilometers and allowed people to avoid terrible __61__ (crowd) on the roads above as they travelled to and __62__ work. It took three years to complete and was built using an interesting method. This included digging up the road, __63__ (lay) the track and then building a strong roof over __64__ top. When all those had been done, the road surface was replaced.
Steam engines __65__ (use) to pull the carriages and it must have been __66__ (fair) unpleasant for the passengers, with all the smoke and noise. However, the railway quickly proved to be a great success and within six months, more than 25,000 people were using __67__ every day.
Later, engineers __68__ (manage) to construct railways in a system of deep tunnels (隧道), which became known as the Tube. This development was only possible with the __69__ (introduce) of electric­powered engines and lifts. The Central London Railway was one of the most __70__ (success) of these new lines, and was opened in 1900. It had white­painted tunnels and bright red carriages, and proved extremely popular with the public.
 (2016·全国卷Ⅰ)
Chengdu has dozens of new millionaires, Asias biggest building, and fancy new hotels. But for tourists like me, pandas are its top __61__ (attract).
So it was a great honour to be invited backstage at the not­for­profit Panda Base, where ticket money helps pay for research. I __62__ (allow) to get up close to these cute animals at the 600­acre centre. From tomorrow, I will be their UK ambassador. The title will be __63__ (official) given to me at a ceremony in London. But my connection with pandas goes 
back __64__ my days on a TV show in the mid­1980s, __65__ I was the first Western TV reporter __66__ (permit) to film a special unit caring for pandas rescued from starvation in the wild. My ambassadorial duties will include __67__ (introduce) British visitors to the 120­plus pandas at Chengdu and others at a research centre in the misty mountains of Bifengxia.
On my recent visit, I held a lively three­month­old twin that had been rejected by __68__ (it) mother. The nursery team switches him every few __69__ (day) with his sister so that while one is being bottle­fed, __70__ other is with mum — she never suspects.
 (2016·全国卷Ⅲ)
In much of Asia, especially the so­called “rice bowl” cultures of China, Japan, Korea, __41__ Vietnam, food is usually eaten with chopsticks.
Chopsticks are usually two long, thin pieces of wood or bamboo. They can also be made of plastic, animal bone or metal. Sometimes chopsticks are quite artistic. Truly elegant chopsticks might __42__ (make) of gold and silver with Chinese characters. Skilled workers also combine various hardwoods and metal __43__ (create) special designs.
The Chinese have used chopsticks for five thousand years. People probably cooked their food in large pots, __44__ (use) twigs (树枝) to remove it. Over time, __45__ the population grew, people began cutting food into small pieces so it would cook more quickly. Food in small pieces could be eaten easily with twigs which __46__ (gradual) turned into chopsticks.
Some people think that the great Chinese scholar Confucius, __47__ lived from roughly 551 to 479 B.C., influenced the __48__ (develop) of chopsticks. Confucius believed knives would remind people of killings and __49__ (be) too violent for use at the table.
Chopsticks are not used everywhere in Asia. In India, for example, most people traditionally eat __50__ their hands.
[名师开讲]考点分类例析,题后悟通规律一、“有提示词”类考点例析
(一)提示词为动词
1.考查谓语动词
[解题攻略] 若句中没有别的谓语动词,或者虽然已有谓语动词,但需填的动词与之是并列关系时,所给动词就是谓语动词,就要考虑时态、语态和主谓一致,有时还需考虑虚拟语气。2.考查非谓语动词
[解题攻略] 若句中已有谓语动词,又不是并列谓语时,所给动词通常是非谓语动词,就要确定是v.­ing形式,v.­ed形式,还是不定式。一般来说,v.­ing形式表示主动、进行;v.­ed形式表示被动、完成;不定式表示尚未发生的动作。3.考查词性转化
[解题攻略] 有时所给提示词虽然是动词,但是空格处既不是考查谓语动词也不是考查非谓语动词,而是要求进行词类转化。此时要结合空格处前后的修饰词来确定所给提示词应转化为哪种词性。一般考查动词转化为名词,有时还需考虑动词变为形容词甚至副词。[技法汇总] “一定三思”解“动词”
(二)提示词为名词或代词
[解题攻略] 1.所给提示词是名词时,一般考查名词单数变为复数;有时考查词类转化,主要是名词变为形容词或动词,偶尔考查所有格。
2.所给提示词是代词时,一般考查人称代词变为物主代词。有时需考虑人称代词单数变为复数或人称代词变为反身代词。(三)提示词为形容词或副词
[解题攻略] 1.所给提示词是形容词或副词时,需考虑是否变为比较级,有时还需考虑变为最高级。
2.所给提示词是形容词时,还需要考虑形容词转化为副词,有时还需考虑转化为名词。二、“无提示词”类考点例析
1.填代词
B—67	However, the railway quickly proved to be a great success and within six months, more than 25,000 people were using __67__ every day.				
[解题攻略] 当句中缺少主语或宾语时,一般要填代词,主要包括人称代词、不定代词以及it的用法。
分析:这里用代词指代前句的the railway,故填it。
2.填介词
B—62	It ran for just under seven kilometers and allowed people to avoid terrible crowds on the roads above as they travelled to and __62__ work.				
[解题攻略] 当名词或代词在句中不作主语、表语或动词的宾语时,其前面一般是填介词。通常考查介词与动词、名词、形容词的搭配。
分析:travel to and from work表示“上下班”,故填from。
3.填冠词
B—64	This included digging up the road, laying the track and then building a strong roof over __64__ top.				A—65	As __65__ result, people will eat more food to try to make up for that something missing.				
分析:此处特指“地铁的顶部”,故填the。
分析:考查固定短语as a result,故填冠词a。
[解题攻略] 当空格后有名词而且两者搭配在一起表示泛指或特指含义,或者空格处修饰有序数词、最高级、表示特指意义的比较级等形式,那么空格处一般是填冠词。有时还考查冠词在一些固定搭配中的用法。
4.填并列连词
D—41	In much of Asia, especially the so­called “rice bowl” cultures of China, Japan, Korea, __41__ Vietnam, food is usually eaten with chopsticks.			
[解题攻略] 当空格前后是两个并列成分,如两个主谓结构完整的词、短语、句子等,而且相并列的成分相互之间存在并列、转折、选择、因果关系等时,那么空格处一般是填并列连词。
分析:分析句子结构可知,China, Japan, Korea与Vietnam是并列关系,故填and。
5.填从句连词
A—70	Like anything, it is possible to have too much of both, __70__ is not good for the health.		

		D—45	Over time, __45__ the population grew, people began cutting food into small pieces so it would cook more quickly.		
		
分析:分析句子结构可知,此处为非限制性定语从句,空格处为引导词指代前句的内容,并在从句中作主语,故填which。
分析:根据句意和句子结构可知,空格处引导时间状语从句,表示“随着”或“当……时候”,故填as/when。
[解题攻略] 当空格后为句子,而此句子又不与前面或后面的句子并列时,一般是填从句连词,包括定语从句、名词性从句和状语从句的引导词。
[解析答案]教师用书独具A
语篇解读:本文是一篇说明文,主要介绍了一种低脂肪、低盐的饮食趋势及其对人们健康的影响。61.as 考查介词。分析句子结构可知,此处在句中作状语,表示“作为一种抵御心脏病的方式”,所以填as,意为“作为”。
62.effects 考查名词复数。这种趋势产生了一些意想不到的副作用。根据空前的“some”及空后的“such as overweight and heart disease”可知,此处指不止一种副作用,故用名词复数形式effects。
63.to process 考查非谓语动词。be required to do sth.为固定用法。
64.are removed 考查时态和语态。本文的主体时态为一般现在时,此处亦应用一般现在时;又fat and salt是动词remove的承受者,应用被动语态。所以此处填are removed。
65.a 考查冠词。as a result为固定搭配,意为“结果”。66.worse 考查比较级。短语even worse意为“更糟糕的是”,表示意义的递进。故填worse。
67.is 考查时态和主谓一致。此处是对客观情况的描述,应用一般现在时;分析句子结构可知,该句缺少谓语动词,又因主语为Fast food,故填is。
68.eating 考查非谓语动词。介词by后跟名词、代词或动名词作宾语,故填eating。
69.careful 考查词性转化。此处为形容词作表语,故填careful“当心的”构成系表结构。
70.which 考查关系代词。分析句子结构可知,此处为非限制性定语从句,空处指代前句的内容,且在从句中作主语,故填关系代词which。B
语篇解读:本文是一篇说明文,介绍了世界上第一个地下客运铁路在英国开放及其逐渐发展成现在的地铁的过程。61.crowds 考查名词复数。因为crowd为可数名词,并且其前没有限定词,所以此处用其复数形式。
62.from 考查介词。此处是指“当他们来回上下班时”。
63.laying 考查非谓语动词。分析句子结构可知,该句的主语为This,谓语动词included后由and连接了三个动名词短语作宾语。故填laying。
64.the 考查定冠词。此处特指“地铁的顶部”,故填定冠词the。
65.were used 考查动词时态和语态。因为是介绍1863年的事情,而且Steam engines与use之间为被动关系,故用一般过去时的被动语态。故填were used。
66.fairly 考查词性转化。修饰形容词unpleasant,故填副词fairly。
67.it 考查代词。根据上文的“the railway quickly ...”可知,此处用it指代the railway。
68.managed 考查动词时态。因为engineers与manage之间为主动关系,而且是发生在过去的事情,所以填managed。
69.introduction 考查词性转化。由前面的定冠词the可知,其后应接名词,故填introduction。
70.successful 考查词性转化。根据语境并结合空前的the most可知,空处表达最高级意义。故填successful。
C
语篇解读:本文是一篇记叙文。成都涌现出很多百万富翁、亚洲最大的建筑以及豪华酒店,但这对于作者这样的游客来说,熊猫才是那里的魅力所在。61.attraction 考查词性转化。空前由形容词top修饰,故空格处应填名词,attract的名词形式是attraction,意思是“吸引人之物”。
62.was allowed 考查时态和语态。I与allow之间是被动关系,故用被动语态;又因上一句主句用一般过去时,可确定此句也用一般过去时。故填was allowed。
63.officially 考查词性转化。空格处修饰过去分词given,故用副词形式。official的副词形式是officially(官方地)。
64.to 考查介词。go back to“追溯到”,是固定搭配。
65.when 考查定语从句引导词。分析句子结构可知,空格处所在的句子是定语从句。定语从句修饰前面的“in the mid­1980s”,且从句缺少时间状语,故用when引导该定语从句。
66.permitted 考查非谓语动词。reporter与permit之间是被动关系,故用过去分词表被动。过去分词短语“permitted to ...”作后置定语,修饰reporter。
67.introducing 考查非谓语动词。动词include后需跟动名词作宾语,故填introducing。
68.its 考查代词。mother是名词,故此处填it的形容词性物主代词its。
69.days 考查名词复数。“every few+复数名词”意思是“每隔……”。every few days“每隔几天”。
70.the 考查冠词。one ... the other ...“一个……另一个……”。
D
语篇解读:本文是一篇说明文。文章介绍了筷子的材质和中国使用筷子的悠久历史及文化内涵。41.and 考查并列连词。句意:……在中国、日本、韩国和越南的……文化里,人们通常用筷子吃饭。空格前后是并列关系,故填and。
42.be made 考查语态。筷子用金、银做成,此处用被动语态。be made of“用……制成”。
43.to create 考查非谓语动词。此处用不定式作目的状语。句意:熟练的工人也把各种各样的硬木和金属结合起来以创造出特别的样式。
44.using 考查非谓语动词。People与use之间是主动关系,故用现在分词作方式状语。
45.as/when 考查状语从句的引导词。句意:慢慢地,随着人口的增加(当人口增加时),为了使食物熟得更快,人们开始把食物切成小块。根据句意可知,空格内填as或者when,引导时间状语从句。
46.gradually 考查词性转化。空格处修饰turned into,故用副词。gradual的副词形式是gradually。
47.who 考查定语从句的引导词。分析句子结构可知,空格处所在句子是非限制性定语从句。定语从句修饰先行词Confucius(孔子),指人,且从句中缺少主语,故用who引导。
48.development 考查词性转化。空格处位于定冠词the后,of前,故空格处需填名词。develop的名词形式是development。
49.were 考查时态和主谓一致。分析句子结构可知,believed后接宾语从句,宾语从句由and连接两个并列谓语。主句用了一般过去时,从句也要用相应的过去时态;又因主语是knives,故填were。
50.with 考查介词。eat with their hands“用手抓饭吃”。with表示“用”。

A
(2017·全国卷Ⅲ)She looks like any other schoolgirl, fresh­faced and full of life. Sarah Thomas is looking forward to the challenge of her new A­level course.But unlike her school friends, 16­year­old Sarah is not spending half­term__1__ (rest).Instead, she is earning £6,500 a day as __2__ model in New York. 
Sarah __3__ (tell) that she could be Britain?s new supermodel,  earning a million dollars in the next year. Her father Peter, 44, wants her to give up school to model full­time.But Sarah, __4__has taken part in shows along with top models, wants__5__ (prove) that she has brains as well as beauty.She is determined to carry on with her__6__(educate).
She has turned down several __7__(invitation) to star at shows in order to concentrate on her studies.After school she plans to take a year off to model full­time before going to university to get a degree __8__ engineering or architecture. 
Sarah says, “My dad thinks I should take the offer now. But at the moment, school __9__ (come) first. I don?t want to get too absorbed in modeling.It is__10__(certain) fun but the lifestyle is a little unreal. I don?t want to have nothing else to fall back on when I can?t model any more.”
语篇解读:本文是一篇记叙文,讲述了16岁的Sarah在上学的同时兼职做模特,并且取得了巨大的成功。虽然她父亲希望她当全职模特,但是Sarah仍然坚持要先完成学业。
1.resting 。spend time doing sth.,resting。
2.a 考查冠词。该空后面model是可数名词单数,此处表示“作为一名模特”,表示泛指,故填a。
3.has been told/was told 考查动词时态和语态。此处动词tell与Sarah之间是被动关系,因为第二段在讲述父亲和Sarah的想法时都是用现在时,因此可以用现在完成时表示过去对现在的影响,故可以填has been told。此外,“被告知”这件事情发生在过去,故也可填was told。
4.who 考查定语从句的引导词。此句Sarah是主语,wants是主句谓语,因此可以判断此处是非限制性定语从句,先行词为Sarah,从句中缺主语且指人,故填who。
5.to prove 考查非谓语动词。want to do是固定搭配,故填to prove。
6.education 考查词性转化。形容词性物主代词her后需用educate的名词形式,故填education。
7.invitations 考查名词复数。invitation是可数名词,前面有several修饰,要用复数形式,故填invitations。
8.in 考查介词。degree与介词in搭配,表示在某方面的学位。故填in。
9.comes 考查动词时态。全文以现在时为主,且school是第三人称单数,故填comes。
10.certainly 考查词性转化。此处fun是名词,但空处修饰整个句子,作状语,故填certainly。
B
(2017·郑州市质检)There are moments in life __1__ you miss someone so much that you just want __2__ (pick) him from your dreams and hug him for real!
When one door of __3__ (happy) closes, another opens, but often we have been looking __4__ long at the closed door that we don’t see the one that __5__ (be) open for us already.Don’t go for looks; they can deceive (欺骗).Dont go for wealth; it fades away.Go for someone who __6__ (make) you smile because __7__ takes only a smile to make a dark 
day bright.Dream what you want to dream; go where you want to go; be what you want to be.__8__ happiest people don?t __9__ (necessary) have the best of everything; they just make the most of everything that comes along their way.The brightest future will always __10__ (base) on a forgotten past.When you were born, you were crying and everyone around you was smiling.Live your life so that when you die, you?re the one who is smiling and everyone around you is crying.
语篇解读:当一扇快乐之门关上了,另一扇门会随之打开。但是,我们常常眷恋着那扇关上了的门,而看不见另一扇门已经打开了。我们要认真生活,享受生活带给我们的快乐。
1.when 考查定语从句的引导词。分析句子结构可知,设空处引导一个定语从句,修饰先行词moments,且在从句中作时间状语。故填when。
2.to pick 考查非谓语动词。动词want后接动词不定式作宾语,故填to pick。
3.happiness 考查词性转化。设空处作of的宾语,应将形容词happy转换为名词happiness。
4.so 考查副词。句意:当一扇快乐之门关上了,另一扇门会随之打开。但是,我们常常眷恋着那扇关上了的门,而看不见另一扇门已经打开了。so ...that ...为固定句型,意为“如此……以至于……”。根据句意可知,此处用so ...that ...表结果。故填so。
5.has been 考查动词的时态和主谓一致。句意见上一题解析。根据句中提示词already可知,此处用现在完成时。定语从句中谓语动词应与所修饰的先行词在数上保持一致。故填has been。
6.makes 考查主谓一致。定语从句中谓语动词应与先行词在数上保持一致。作先行词的不定代词someone是单数,故填动词的第三人称单数形式makes。
7.it 考查代词。It takes sth.to do sth.意为“做某事需要某物”。it在句中作形式主语,动词不定式结构为真正的主语。故填it。
8.The 考查冠词。最高级前用定冠词,故填The。
9.necessarily 考查词性转化。空处修饰动词have应用副词。故填形容词necessary的副词形式necessarily,意为“必要地”。
10.be based 考查动词的语态。be based on为固定搭配,意为“根据;以……为基础”。主语future与动词base之间为被动关系,应用被动语态,故填be based。
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