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当前位置: 高考学习网 > 2018年高考英语通用版二轮专题复习三维课件:专题复习3部曲 3 第1讲 名词和冠词

2018年高考英语通用版二轮专题复习三维课件:专题复习3部曲 3 第1讲 名词和冠词

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* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 判定方法 应用体验 当确定所填词是可数名词时,需要考虑其单复数问题。除了根据上下文语境之外,还可以通过以下信息判断。 1.不定冠词a, an后用名词单数     形式。 2.有these, those, several,       many, all, both等词修饰时     名词用复数形式。 3.名词前有one of 时用名词复     数形式。 4.如果空格处作主语,且谓语     动词是单数形式,则空格处     应填名词单数形式;若谓语     动词是复数形式,则空格处     应填名词复数形式。 ③(2017·桂林市联考)To them, life is a  ___________ (compete) — they have to do better than their peers to be happy. ④(2017·山师大附中模拟)She had several _______ (illness) when she was very young, including pneumonia and headache. ⑤(2017·绵阳市模拟)It is one of the world’s most­visited _____ (city) in terms of international arrivals and has the world’s largest city airport system. ⑥(2017·成都市模拟)The ___________ (depend) on mobile devices is even having physical and mental effects. ⑦(2017·漳州市八校联考)________ (chance) are that you will receive three different answers. 自主练悟 谨记规律 ①(2017·浙江高考)Last October, while tending her garden in Mora, Sweden, Lena Pahlsson pulled out a handful of small _______ (carrot) and was about to throw them away. ②(2017·湖南师大附中模拟) The new pilot says it’s never too late to spread your ______ (wing) and try something new. 一般在名词词尾直接加s。例如: friend (朋友)→friends   nation (国家)→nations  interest (兴趣)→interests  change (变化)→changes member (成员)→members  wing (翅膀)→wings 自主练悟 谨记规律 ③(2017·河南省天一大联考)I learned that spies usually hid important letters in an umbrella, in a shoe, or even in a pair of ordinary _______ (glass). ④(2017·银川一中二模)But without sunlight and good soil, soon the leaves began to fall down and the ________ (branch) began to dry. 词尾是s, x, ch, sh时一般加es。例如: bus公共汽车→buses  fox狐狸→foxes  coach教练→coaches  branch树枝→branches bush灌木丛→bushes 注意:stomach(胃部)的复数形式是在词尾直接加s。 自主练悟 谨记规律 ⑤(2016·四川高考)Any smell  might attract natural ________  (enemy) that would try to eat the little panda. ⑥(2017·唐山市一模)The  220­pound Qizai has become a  superstar, and many ____ (toy)  in his color have been made. 词尾是辅音字母+y时,变y为ies;词尾是元音字母+y时,直接加s。例如: enemy敌人→enemies   hobby业余爱好→hobbies difficulty困难→difficulties  toy玩具→toys key钥匙→keys 自主练悟 谨记规律 ⑦(2017·石家庄市一模)On the  other hand, if the water is not  hot enough, the tea ______ (leaf)  won’t open up and you will miss  the pleasantly fresh flavor. 词尾是f或fe时,多将f或fe变为ves。例如: shelf架子→shelves  knife刀子→knives leaf叶子→leaves  housewife家庭主妇→housewives ⑧(2017·江西省重点中学盟校 联考)_________ (tomato) and  potatoes took some time to  become popular. ⑨(2017·四川省龙泉市模拟) They may let you surf the  Internet, listen to music and take  ______ (photo) wherever you are. 词尾是以辅音字母+o结尾,直接加es;以元音字母加o结尾,直接加s。例如: tomato番茄→tomatoes  zoo动物园→zoos 注意:外来词piano与缩略词photo直接加s。 自主练悟 谨记规律 ①(2017·长沙市联考)Many enjoy the opportunity to buy presents because gift­giving offers a powerful  _______ (means) to build stronger bonds with one’s closest persons. 单复数同形的名词:例如: sheep绵羊            deer鹿  aircraft飞行器    Chinese中国人  Japanese日本人  means手段 works工厂           series系列 ②(2017·石嘴山市模拟)Of the fifteen ________ (child) born to the family, only eight survived. ③(2017·潍坊市复习过关)In the US, for example, more than 14% of ________ (woman) between 18 and 34 plan to have just one child. 自身有特殊变化的名词:例如: child孩子→children  man男人→men woman女人→women   tooth牙→teeth foot脚;英尺→feet   mouse老鼠→mice  criterion标准→criteria   medium传播媒介→media phenomenon现象→phenomena 自主练悟 谨记规律 ①(2016·全国卷Ⅲ)The teenage year from 13 to 19 were the most difficult time for me.                 ____________ ②(2017·全国卷Ⅱ)Besides, they often get some useful informations from the Internet. __________________________ ③(2014·辽宁高考)We’ve called several time about Cleo’s early morning barking.          ___________ ④(2017·陕西师大附中模拟)It was a long walk to the repairer shop. _____________________ 自主练悟 谨记规律 ①(2017·山西省实验中学质检)And they talked about turning ___ embarrassing situation into a sweet one! ②(2017·马鞍山市模拟)But now we have already been standing by this road for over ___ hour. ③(2017·湖北省七市联考)Unfolded before me was __ unique image of this water country — the stone bridge and the water flowing, all like fairy tales to me. 不定冠词有两种形式: (1)当紧跟着冠词的第一      个音素为辅音音素      (注意:不是辅音字      母)时用a; (2)当紧跟着冠词的第一      个音素为元音音素       (注意:不是元音字       母)时用an。 自主练悟 谨记规律 ④(2017·浙江高考)For Pahlsson, its return was __ wonder. 不定冠词a/an放在单数可数名词前,泛指一个人或一个事物。 ⑤(2015·四川高考改编)Brian is gifted in writing music; he is very likely to be __ Beethoven. 不定冠词a/an意为“某一个……”,相当于a certain。 ⑥(2017·皖南八校模拟)It asks you to work out four times __ week for about two months. 不定冠词表示“每……”,多用于速度、时间等表达中。 自主练悟 谨记规律 ⑦(2017·南昌市三校联考)Finally,  it was __ great success which saved  lives then, and is still saving lives  today. ⑧(2017·焦作市模拟)I acquired __  good knowledge of that after I read  the description in the museum. 具有某些特征、状态或 情感的抽象名词在表示 具体的概念时,可以与 不定冠词连用。如: a success“一个成功的人或一件成功的事”。 ⑨(2017·菏泽市模拟)The farmer  was about to give up when a little  boy went up to him and asked to  be given __ second chance. 序数词前用不定冠词表 示“另一个”或“又一 个”。 自主练悟 谨记规律 ⑩(2017·黑吉两省六校联考) This has created a “throw­away society” which is __ waste of the earth’s resources. ⑪(2017·福建师大附中模拟) This simple way of helping people is now making __ big difference to society. 不定冠词常用在一些固定搭配中。如: a waste of            浪费……   all of a sudden       突然地 as a rule                  通常   as a result of           由于 as a whole               总体上  make a difference  有影响 自主练悟 谨记规律 ①(2017·太原一模)A mouse, because of an unlucky chance, made close friends with an evil frog.One day, ___ frog played a trick on the mouse by tying a foot of the mouse to his own. 定冠词the特指某人或某物。 ②(2017·陕西省渭南市质检)Smoking is one of ___ biggest causes of preventable deaths in England. ③(2017·西安市模拟)Robert Bruce, leader of the Scots in ___ 13th century, was hiding in a cave from the English. ④(2017·菏泽市模拟)They may have wanted to hurt you or they just don’t see things in ___ same way. 在最高级或序数词前面或由only, very, same等修饰的名词前面用定冠词the。 自主练悟 谨记规律 ⑤(2017·佛山一中模拟)Soldiers came to rescue those buried under the ruins, and the government provided food, clothes and shelters for ___ homeless. 定冠词the和形容词、过去分词连用,表示一类人或事物。 ⑥In ___ early 1990s, the library was named after the businessman who donated most of the money with which to buy it. 定冠词用在年代或用于逢十的数词前,也用在表示世纪的某个年代前。 ⑦(2017·甘肃省白银市模拟)New fuel can be used to take ___ place of gas. ⑧(2017·沈阳二中模拟)On ___ whole, Canadian students do have a lot of freedom. 定冠词常用在一些固定搭配中。如: take the place of 替代; on the whole总的来说; on the spot 当场。 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 一、基础保分类考点——这些语法较简单,以练促学把分捡第1~6讲
第1讲名词和冠词
[特别说明] 本讲主要涉及名词的单复数和所有格,有关名词的词性转换将在“第6讲 构词法”中具体讲解。
语法填空题对名词的考查主要包括名词的单复数和所有格,以及给出动词、形容词等提示词要求写出适当的名词形式。短文改错重点考查名词的单复数、不可数名词、名词与其他词类的词性转化等。解答有关名词的题目时,一定要注意名词前的修饰成分,如数词、量词、常修饰可数名词复数和不可数名词的词或短语等,判断其是需要可数名词单数形式、复数形式还是不可数名词;有的还要结合语境分析句子成分,判断是否需要作主语、宾语、表语或定语的名词。

判定方法	应用体验		提示词为名词时,分析句子成分后若发现词性不需要改变,则一般考查所给名词的复数形式;如果作定语表示“……的”,则一般考查名词的所有格。	①(2017·全国卷Ⅲ)She has turned down several            (invitation) 
to star at shows in order to concentrate 
on her studies. 
②(2017·湖南师大附中模拟)This could be           (Mary) motto — the 
expression that best captures her spirit.		
invitations
Mary?s
competition
illnesses
cities
dependence
Chances

(一)名词复数的规则变化
carrots
wings
glasses
branches
enemies
toys
leaves
Tomatoes
photos
(二)名词复数的不规则变化
means
children
women
year→years
informations→information
time→times
repairer→repairer’s
名词数与格的错用1.可数名词单复数的错用:一般考查错把复数用作单数,偶尔也考查错把单数用作复数。
2.不可数名词单复数的错用:不可数名词没有复数形式。
3.可数名词与不可数名词混淆:有些词既可用作可数名词也可用作不可数名词,应注意具体语境。
4.误把名词的所有格用作普通格:表示“……的”应用所有格形式。
自主练悟	谨记规律		⑤(2016·全国卷Ⅰ)My uncle tells me that the key to his success is honest.⑥(2013·全国卷Ⅱ)This made for the grow in the porcelain industry.⑦(2017·宝鸡中学模拟)Young people make their parents angry with their  choose in clothes.名词与形容词、名词与动词的错用1.该用名词却误用形容词:作表语时,与主语构成同位关系一般用名词,形容词一般是对主语的描述。
2.该用名词却误用动词:在冠词、所有格或介词后一般用名词。		
honest→honesty
grow→growth
choose→choices
冠词是语法填空题的常考点,经常考查不定冠词a,an和定冠词the的基本用法和固定搭配。解答冠词类题目时,首先需要明确设空处是表示特指还是泛指,如果是前者用the,后者则需要再判断用a还是an。短文改错中的冠词类题目,除了判断是表示特指还是泛指外,还需要注意单数可数名词前必须有冠词。同时对常见的固定搭配中的冠词也要熟练掌握。
——如何确定填冠词
判定方法	应用体验		如果空格后有名词(短语)而且二者搭配在一起表示泛指或特指含义,或者有序数词、最高级、表示特指意义的比较级等形式,那么空格处一般是填冠词。	①(2017·全国卷Ⅲ)But unlike her school friends, 16­year­old Sarah is not spending half­term resting.Instead, she is earning £6,500 a day as  model in New York. 
②(2017·吉林大学附中模拟)The day that you enjoy all  satisfaction of having all the housework done by a robot might still be a few decades off.		
a
the
——冠词的常考点
(一)不定冠词a/an
an
an
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
(二)定冠词the
the
the
the
the
the
the
the
the
(一)冠词的错用
自主练悟	谨记规律		①(2017·全国卷Ⅱ)They live far from the school, and it takes them about a hour and a half to go to work every day.②(2017·襄阳市模拟)Studying at an university in the UK has been a good experience for me.③(2017·肇庆市模拟)Im Wang Hong, a 
international student of Beijing University.
            	a和an的错用元音音素前用an,辅音音素前用a。		
第一个a→an
an→a
a→an
自主练悟	谨记规律		(2016·全国卷)My uncle says that he never dreams of becoming rich in the short period of time.                  
⑤(2015·全国卷)One day, little Tony went to a shopping center with his parents ...A woman saw him crying and told him to wait outside a shop.
               
⑥(2017·柳州市模拟)Its the pity that a lot of people still don’t appreciate the value of time.                         	不定冠词和定冠词的错用表示特指时用定冠词the;表示泛指时用不定冠词a(n)。注意固定搭配中冠词的使用情况。		
the→a
shop前的a→the
第一个the→a
(二)冠词的缺失与多余
自主练悟	谨记规律		(2016·四川高考)I asked Mom to stay in the sitting room and I cooked in kitchen.(2017·衡水中学模拟)To start with, Beijing, the capital of China, is very attractive city with a long history.单数可数名词前冠词的缺失一般来说,单数可数名词前应有适当的冠词,表示泛指用a(n),表示特指用the。		(2014·全国卷)There are all kinds of the flowers and trees around the 
classroom buildings.                   
④(2017·成都市模拟)As the time went on, different life forms began.          	冠词的多余可数名词复数或不可数名词表示泛指时不用冠词。		
kitchen前加the
is后加a
去掉flowers前的the
去掉the
自主练悟	谨记规律		(2017·皖南八校联考)The father was in hurry so he didn’t know what was inside.                
⑥(2017·广东省清远市模拟)Im Li Hua and I’m 
writing to apply for the assistant post you 
advertised on Internet.                           
⑦(2017·河北省定州中学模拟)At that time, I was having a trouble studying English and my scores 
fell.                                          
⑧(2017·安徽省淮南二中模拟)But the most important thing is that the number of private cars 
should be put under the control.                                  	注意常用固定搭配中冠词的缺失与多余。		
hurry前加a
Internet前加the
去掉a
去掉control前的the

Ⅰ.单句语法填空
1.(2017·泰安市质检)And its certain that these ancient 
        (custom) will live forever.
2.(2017·南昌二中模拟)He even came close to seeing it for himself no less than nineteen       (time).
3.(2017·吉林大学附中模拟) (expert) consider such 
engineering to be among the best in the world.
customs
times
Experts

4.(2017·渭南市二模)The motivation behind this (decide) is to make smoking less appealing to people, 
especially children.
5.(2017·包头市模拟)I am eighteen years old now, which means I’ve become an adult and have more                
(responsibility).
6.The  (postcard) history for the last 94 years is 
still a mystery.
7.(2017·烟台市测试)They are trying to make people understand that donating blood is one of the highest        
(form) of charity.
decision
responsibilities
postcard?s
forms
8.(2017·石家庄市测试)Thats one of the nice things about 
computer        (game) — you can escape the real world.
9.(2017·安徽省六安市模拟)From that, they may come to China and learn about some other         (aspect) of 
this culture.
10.(2017·揭阳市调研)For tourists who hold a special Tourist Card, they can enjoy a lot of benefits, such as discounts 
on         (watch), jewelry and cosmetics.
games
aspects
watches
Ⅱ.单句改错
1.(2017·合肥市质检)As a student, what can we do to guarantee our safe? 											            
2.(2017·福州市质检)Most people directly link senior high school life with plenty of stress and endless homeworks.
                      
3.(2017·拉萨中学模拟)In the afternoon, Ill show you 
around and take you to some place of interest.
            
safe→safety
homeworks→homework
place→places
4.(2017·兰州一中模拟)Nowadays, many people were crazy about instant fame and wealthy.				                
5.(2017·佛山一中模拟)A big storm destroyed two villages in South Africa last Friday, causing 4 death.		               
6.(2017·山师大附中模拟)When he got to the company, he found there were many people waiting there and he had 
no ideas whether he could get the job.			             
7.(2017·曲师大附中模拟)One of the most important rule of finding happiness in life is to do what you love.           
wealthy→wealth
death→deaths
ideas→idea
rule→rules
8.(2017·怀化市联考)For students, no matter how busy they are, it is necessary to spare some time to do exercises.
                                   
9.(2017·洛阳统一考试)Once I broke a neighbor window.Seeing nobody around, I ran away immediately.
                                           
10.(2017·绵阳市模拟)In my opinion, to take a break between class is of significant importance.                      
exercises→exercise
neighbor→neighbor’s
class→classes

Ⅰ.单句语法填空
1.(2017·豫南九校模拟)My parents noticed but felt that since I’d always been    good child, this was temporary.
2.(2017·合肥市一模)Chinese brush calligraphy or “shufa” in Chinese is one of     most important art forms in China.
3.(2017·山西大学附中模拟)Since I had  electronic ticket, 
I then went straight to the boarding gate.
a
the
an

4.(2017·石家庄市质检)In Chinese tradition, people take giving children lucky money as    blessing.
5.(2017·青岛市模拟)There was  empty place in my heart 
that only a friend like Linda could fill.
6.(2017·西宁市二模)Well, Sarah, sometimes food and clothes aren’t     only important things.
7.(2017·湖南师大附中模拟)If our seed is poor and full of weeds, we will reap    useless crop.
a
an
the
a
8.Recently when he took  look at his collection of books, 
he discovered the old book borrowed 61 years ago.
9.(2017·济宁市模拟)Later, Hongbao developed into more general best wishes and a blessing on     young.
10.(2017·山西实验中学模拟)Older women are now more likely to start again instead of retiring into    peaceful 
life of cooking and gardening.
a
the
a
Ⅱ.单句改错
1.(2017·吉林市普通中学模拟)I think it is the good thing for the workforce to be flexible.								            
2.(2017·天水市模拟)Why not get together with some friends for a picnic on such fine day?3.(2017·淮北市一模)The following months witnessed my efforts, and I finally made a great progress in other 
important exams.																      
4.(2017·泸州市模拟)It was an end of my first day as a waitress in a busy restaurant.									        
第一个the→a
such后加a
去掉a
an→the
5.(2017·九江一中模拟)During your study, you can take the part in more activities after class, where you can make 
more friends from different countries.					        
6.(2017·漳州市联考)Realizing it was our last school sports meeting, we decided to make it unforgettable experience.
                                     
7.After climbing for half a hour, we got to the top of the mountain.																		      
去掉the
unforgettable前加an
a→an
8.(2017·周口市质检)On the one hand, he has gift for singing and has taken part in many singing contests in which he 
performed well.																          
9.(2017·贵州航天高级中学模拟)To make our city the better place to live in, we still have a lot to do.						       
10.(2017·福州八中质检)From then on, I learned to help others and turn to my friends for the help whenever I 
had difficulty finishing a task on my own.			         
gift前加a
the→a
去掉the
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