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2018年高考英语通用版二轮专题复习三维课件:专题复习3部曲 3 第2讲 代词和介词

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* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 自主练悟 谨记规律 ①(2015·广东高考)Now it occurred to  ____ that his farm had much potential and that the death of the cow was a bit of luck. ②(2017·吉林市普通中学测试)Firstly, we must be able to understand the language when we hear __ spoken. ③(2017·荆州中学质检)One who didn’t believe in alarm clocks told the boss that “God didn’t wake ___ (I).” 人称代词第三人称的主格(he, she, it, they)与宾格(him, her, it, them)常指代前文或后文出现的人或物。当提示词为人称代词的主格时需考虑是否变为宾格。 自主练悟 谨记规律 ④(2017·山西大学附中模拟)When I got there, I couldn’t believe ___ eyes. ⑤(2017·合肥市质检)Some people buy cloth shoes out of nostalgia (怀旧), while others trust _____ (they) quality. ⑥(2017·佛山一中模拟)At first she took my hands in ____ (she) and listened patiently as I mentioned my worries. 形容词性物主代词(my, your, his, her, its, our, their)在句中作定语,常表示物体的所属;而名词性物主代词(mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs)在句中可以作主语、宾语和表语,但不可以作定语。 自主练悟 谨记规律 ⑦(2017·佛山市模拟)I always  remind ______ I must go on and on,  and never shall I give up halfway. ⑧(2017·石家庄市一模)However,  Chinese tea culture goes far beyond  tea _____ (it). ⑨(2017·成都市模拟)All in all,  every student should behave ______  (he) and keep away from violence. 反身代词(myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves)表示动作的承受者就是动作的执行者,可以在句中作宾语、表语和同位语。 自主练悟 谨记规律 ①(2014·全国卷Ⅰ改编)The river was so polluted that __ actually caught fire and burned. ②(2017·江西省五市八校联考)__ was really considerate of him to stop to help a perfect stranger like me, especially in such terrible weather. ③(2017·银川九中模拟)The frozen parts of the city also make __ easier for residents to skate around. ④(2017·重庆模拟)I hate __ when someone makes a mess of my learning materials on my desk. ⑤(2017·株洲市质检)He’s a bit of an expert when __ comes to computers. 1.it可指代事物或上文提到过的内      容。 2.it可作形式主语或形式宾语,用     来指代不定式、动词­ing形式或    从句,而把真正的主语或宾语后    置。 3.表示“喜欢,恨”等心理方面的    动词后面跟从句时,要先接it,    再接从句,这类动词有like, love,     hate, dislike, appreciate等。 4.it常用于一些固定搭配中,如it    is no wonder that “难怪……”;    make it“成功;赶上”;when    it comes to ...“当提到……”等。 自主练悟 ①(2017·烟台市模拟)So when faced with problems, we should overcome it with great determination and strong willpower. ________ ②(2017·豫南九校质检)Anyone who is interested in something will devote himself to them.                                                  ________ ③(2013·陕西高考)We took ours fishing poles and headed for the lake.                                                                                      _________ ④(2017·湖北省八校联考)I suddenly realized I had grown up and that I had to look after me and live independently.      __________ ⑤(2017·河南省百校联盟质检)I was so excited that he took my mother and myself to Thailand.                                      __________  自主练悟 ⑥(2015·陕西高考)I wanted to do anything special for him at his retirement party.                                 ___________________ ⑦(2015·四川高考)It’s been three Saturdays now and it really costs me many.                                                         ____________ ⑧(2017·全国卷Ⅱ)Mr.and Mrs.Zhang  all work in our school. _________________ ⑨(2017·全国卷Ⅲ)I enjoyed studying different kinds of cars and planes, playing pop music, and collecting the latest music albums.This picture often brings back to me many happy memories of your high school days.                             _________ 自主练悟 ①(2016·全国卷Ⅲ)At last, I will be on my own, but I still want to have my parents to turn to whenever need help. ______________ ②(2015·全国卷Ⅱ)Five minutes later, Tony saw parents. __________ ③(2017·衡阳市质检)I find very convenient to go anywhere with a bike.                                                                  _________ ④(2017·九江市联考)About two years ago, I worked hard and entered a local key school, which my parents were proud of it.                                                                                     _____ ⑤(2017·西安市模拟)Once I had to read a textbook which was too expensive for me to buy it.                                 ______  自主练悟 谨记规律 ①(2017·威海市模拟)He wrote this postcard and sent it to his lovely sister Nell __ January 2017. ②(2017·福州市模拟)___ this day, the dead are said to return to their homes and they are welcomed by the living. ③(2014·四川高考改编)Working in the garden __ midnight tended to throw her timing off, so she didn’t care much about my bedtime. 1.in表示在某段较长的    时间内(如世纪、年  代、月份等)或泛指上   午、下午、晚上等。 2.on表示在具体的日    子或具体的某一天    的上午、下午、晚    上等。 3.at表示某个时间点、    时刻等。 自主练悟 谨记规律 ①(2014·北京高考改编)Jane is in a hurry because the train to the airport leaves __ half an hour. ②(2017·合肥市模拟)Behind him were other people to whom he was trying to talk, but _____ some minutes they walked away and sat near me, looking annoyed. 1.in表示“在……时    间之内/之后”,所    在的句子必须表示    将来。 2.after表示“在……  时间之后”,通常  “after+时间段”    与过去时连用。 自主练悟 谨记规律 ①(2015·福建高考改编)A weak ray of light came in ________ a small hole in the wall and he was absorbed in his reading. ②(2015·陕西高考改编)The little pupil took his grandma by the arm and walked her ______ the street. 1.through表示    “从……的内部     穿过”。  2.across表示“从     ……表面穿过”。 自主练悟 谨记规律 ①(2015·全国卷Ⅰ)For those who fly to Guilin, it’s only an hour away ___ car and offers all the scenery of the better­known city. ②(2014·安徽高考改编)Reading is the best way to pass time ___ the train. 1.by后可直接跟涉及和    不涉及交通工具的名    词,名词前不加冠词。 2.on/in后跟交通工具时,    名词前应有冠词、物主    代词、指示代词等修饰    语。 自主练悟 谨记规律 ①(2017·济南市模拟)Mr Li makes a living ___ driving taxis. ②(2015·湖北高考改编)There is no doubt that this candidate’s advantage lies in his ability to communicate with foreigners __ English. ③(2016·全国卷Ⅲ)In India, for example, most people traditionally eat _____ their hands. 1.by指“靠……手段,    用……方法,凭    借……”,后可接名    词、代词或动名词。 2.in多用于表示语言、    材料的名词前。 3.with多用于表示工    具或身体器官的名    词前。 自主练悟 谨记规律 ①(2017·白银市模拟)________ these, about 10% of air pollution is caused by other reasons. ②(2015·全国卷Ⅰ改编)Our monthly talks start at 19:30 on the first Thursday of each month ______ August. 1.besides表示“除……     之外还……”。 2.except表示“除……   之外”。 自主练悟 ①(2017·九江一中模拟)It is a very exciting city _____ great hotels, fine restaurants and even casinos. ②(2015·全国卷Ⅱ改编)You can make your environment work for you instead of _______ you. ③(2017·漳州市八校联考)This year had brought me so much pain — a divorce, losing my house and the loss __ my job. ④(2017·天水市模拟)Nowadays, ____ the development of technology, online shopping is becoming more and more convenient. ⑤(2016·四川高考)The mother continued to care for the young panda ___ more than two years. 自主练悟 ⑥(2017·潍坊市模拟)_____ nobody else at the scene, Chen left all his money, 311 yuan($45), for compensation, and a letter of apology. ⑦(2015·天津高考改编)Although her description sounded wonderful, the price was _______ our range, so we declined. ⑧(2017·兰州一中模拟)When she died, the mayor of New York said the city would not be what it is today ________ her support. ⑨(2017·天水市诊断)In short, I believe that it is ___ great use to keep a diary in English for the development of our writing skills. ⑩(2017·曲师大附中模拟)________ these difficulties, they managed to work out 24 Solar Terms by studying the sun’s movement. 自主练悟 谨记规律 ①(2017·江南十校模拟)Each reader can borrow up to 5 books once and 20 books at most __ total. ②(2017·银川九中模拟)The music of Peking Opera can be divided ____ the Xipi and Erhuang styles. ③(2017·大庆铁人中学模拟)Next, Tom learned about kids who need meals on weekends when they don’t have access __ school lunches. ④(2017·厦门一中模拟)During this time, nice and cheap goods are ___ sale for tourists to choose from. 介词在固定搭配中的考查主要有以下几种形式: 1.介词与名词的搭配 2.介词与形容词的搭配 3.介词与动词的搭配 近几年语法填空题考过的搭配有:at the same time, at a lower price, go back to, be focused on, exchange ...for ..., be charged for, laugh at, next to等。 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 第2讲            代词和介词
近几年高考对代词的考查主要集中在代词的基本用法上,因此
这类试题一般较为简单。语法填空侧重对替代词it的用法的
考查;而短文改错对代词的考查主要集中在不定代词、反身
代词、形容词性物主代词和代词的格等的用法上。
考生在解题时要根据语境、句意判断人称和数;应仔细阅读上
下文,根据代词具体指代的对象和在句中充当的成分,确定
代词的格。未来高考对代词的考查将继续侧重代词的基本用
法,并会加强语境的真实性和复杂性。
一、基础保分类考点——这些语法较简单,以练促学把分捡第1~6讲
——如何确定填代词
判定方法	应用体验		1.当句中缺少主语或宾语时,一般要填代词,主要包括人称代词、替代词、不定代词以及it。
2.当所给提示词为代词时,人称代词需考虑变为宾格、变为物主代词、变为反身代词以及it变为its等。	(2017·烟台市模拟)I brought the flowers to the school and left        
(they) in her office. 
②(2017·银川一中二模)But when he got home, he felt    difficult to decide 
where to plant it.
③(2017·福建省莆田市模拟)Around 70 percent of       (they) were set up by 
local doctors.
④(2017·浙江高考)“She thought I had hurt         (I),” says Pahlsson.		
them
it
them
myself
——代词的常考点
(一)人称代词、物主代词和反身代词
him
it
me
my
their
hers
myself
itself
himself
(二)替代词和不定代词
自主练悟	谨记规律		(2017·南充市模拟)He said the vegetables were 
smaller than       grown 
in fresh water.
②(2017·南昌二中模拟)To him, the wild man is a 
branch of science,      
that he has been studying 
for a very long time.	替代词that, those, one, ones1.that可以指代前面出现过的不可数名词或单数可数名词,其复数形式为those。
2.one指代前面出现过的那类事物中的“一个”,其复数形式为ones。		
those
one
自主练悟	谨记规律		③(2015·福建高考改编)The research group produced two reports based on the survey, but 
         contained any useful 
suggestions.
④(2017·遵义航天高级中学模拟)Many means had been tried but 
      of them were good enough.
⑤(2017·铜仁市模拟)In the old days, people used to train dogs to 
protect themselves against the 
attacks from        beasts.
⑥(2017·哈尔滨市模拟)In one way of thinking, failure is part of life.In 
        way, failure may be a way
towards success.	不定代词的用法1.both, either, neither都强调两者,可作主语、宾语和定语。neither表示“两者都不”; either表示“两者中任何一个”;both表示“两者都”。
2.all和none都强调三者或三者以上,all表示“全部都”,而none表示“全部都不”。
3.another表示“(三者或三者以上中的)另一个,再一个”; the other意为“(两者中的)另一个”;other意为“其余的,另外的”;others泛指其余的人或物。		
neither
none
other
another
(三)it
it
It
it
it
it
(一)代词的错用
it→them
them→it
ours→our
me→myself
myself→me
anything→something
many→much
all→both或去掉all
your→my
谨记规律		1.代词数的错用人称代词、物主代词以及反身代词等都有单复数之分,要根据上下文确定单复数。
2.物主代词的错用
形容词性物主代词相当于形容词,不能单独使用,常用来修饰名词;名词性物主代词相当于名词,常单独使用,不能修饰名词。
3.人称代词与反身代词的错用
反身代词是指代主语的,使动作的发出者把动作反射到本人身上。若所用代词与主语不一致,就要用人称代词而不用反身代词。
4.不定代词的错用
常见的有many与much, some(thing)与any(thing), other与another,表示两者的both, either, neither与表示三者或三者以上的all, none等。
5.代词的指代错误
若文中出现代词,它所代替的词一定存在于前文或后文的某处,要注意它们的前后一致性。	
(二)代词的缺失与多余
whenever后加I
saw后加his
find后加it
去掉it
去掉it
谨记规律		1.代词的缺失主要是人称代词与物主代词的缺失,若缺少主语需考虑是否用人称代词,还要根据上下文考虑名词前是否缺少物主代词,另外还要注意it的缺失。
2.代词的多余
主要是定语从句中代词的多余和固定结构中代词的多余。在定语从句中,若引导词在从句中作宾语,此时就不能再用it, him或them等作宾语;在句式“sb./sth.+be+adj.+to do”中,do后不能再用it或them。	
高考对介词的考查主要集中在介词的基本用法及介词与其他词构成的固定短语的用法上。语法填空题对介词的考查形式为纯空格,即没有提示词,这对考生正确理解句意提出了较高的要求。短文改错题对介词的考查主要涉及介词的多余、缺失或误用,其中固定搭配中介词的误用是考查的重点。因此,考生应在掌握介词基本用法的同时,注意总结和积累其与名词、形容词、动词等搭配构成的短语的意思和用法。
——如何确定填介词
判定方法	应用体验		如果名词或代词在句中不作主语、表语或动词的宾语时,其前面一般是填介词。通常考查介词与动词、名词、形容词的搭配。	(2017·全国卷)After school she plans to 
take a year off to model fulltime before going 
to university to get a degree    engineering or 
architecture.
②(2016·全国卷)Most of us are more focused 
   our tasks in the morning than we are later 
in the day.
③(2016·全国卷)But my connection with 
pandas goes back    my days on a TV show 
in the mid­1980s ...		
in
on
to
——介词的常考点
(一)几组常见介词的辨析
1.表示时间的in, on, at
in
On
at
2.表示时间的inafter
in
after
3.表示方位的throughacross
through
across
4.表示交通方式的byon/in
by
on
5.表示“用……”的by, in, with
by
in
with
6.表示“除……之外”的besidesexcept
Besides
except
(二)其他常考的介词
with
against
of
with
for
With
beyond
without
of
Despite
谨记规律		1.with(1)(表示状态)具有,带有(2)(表示伴随)随着
(3)(表示原因)由于,因为(4)(表示关系)和……一起
(5)构成with复合结构
2.against
(1)(表示态度)反对(2)(表示对比)以……为背景
(3)(表示方位)倚靠着……
3.of
(1)表示“……的”(2)“of+n.”相当于形容词
4.for
“for+时间段”表示“长达……”
5.despite 尽管,虽然
6.without 如果没有
7.beyond 超出,超越	
(三)介词在固定搭配中的考查
in
into
to
on
(一)介词的错用
自主练悟	谨记规律		①(2016·全国卷Ⅲ)Now I am leaving home to college.②(2015·全国卷Ⅱ)Tony saw a toy on a shop window.③(2017·泸州市模拟)Then the father smiled for me as he handed me a tip.④(2017·延安市模拟)As a result, doctors are in great need in home and abroad.⑤(2017·成都市模拟)Then with the signal given, we began climbing to the direction of the top.1.介词基本用法的错用有时我们会受汉语的影响错用介词,例如:“在……帮助下”,英语应用with the help of而不是under the help of。
2.固定搭配中介词的错用
介词可与名词、动词、形容词等构成固定搭配,其中的介词是固定的。有时搭配中介词不同意义也不同。		
to→for
on→in
for→at
第二个in→at
to→in
(二)介词的多余与缺失
自主练悟	谨记规律		①(2017·全国卷Ⅱ)They have also boughtfor some gardening tools.               
②(2015·陕西高考)My soccer coach retired in last week.                    
③(2014·全国卷Ⅱ)We can lie on the grassfor a rest, or sit by the lake listening 
music.                               
④(2017·河北省“五个一名校联盟”质检)One day, a foreign couple in their fifties 
entered into the restaurant.              
⑤(2017·宁夏石嘴山市模拟)Faced with challenges, we should fight bravely 
instead giving up.                      	1.介词的多余及物动词后直接跟宾语,无需再加介词;last, next等后跟名词表时间时无需加介词。
2.介词的缺失
不及物动词后跟宾语时应加相应的介词。
3.注意固定搭配中介词的有无。		
去掉for
去掉in
listening后加to
去掉into
instead后加of


Ⅰ.单句语法填空
1.(2017·潍坊市模拟)An only child tends not to get along well with children of     (he) age.
2.(2017·河北沧州质检)They do it because the platform allows their voice to be heard and constantly encourages 
them to improve            (they).
3.(2017·山师附中模拟)Jasmine tea is the favorite of many old Beijingers, who love     (it) pure, clear taste and 
strong fragrance.
his
themselves
its

4.(2017·郴州市质检)On his way back, Simon rode and drove the rest of the donkeys along the road.
5.(2017·柳州市模拟)A field trip is a journey by a group of people to a place away from       (they) normal 
environment.
6.(2017·新疆第二次检测)Nowadays reference books have become a problem of great concern for       the teachers 
and the students.
7.(2017·潍坊实验中学模拟)Every one of us should behave politely and think more about       .
one
their
both
others
8.(2017·淮南二中模拟)Yet  is amazing that the film is 
funny enough to earn it belly laughs from beginning to end.
9.(2017·天水一中诊断)After this visit, my friends and I decided that we should do            to help improve 
the quality of their lives.
10.(2017·琼海市模拟)I tried my best to persuade him, but  didn’t help.
it
something
it
Ⅱ.单句改错
1.(2017·银川九中模拟)Although my flat is small, I like them very much because it is comfortable.                  
2.(2017·湖北省八校联考)After registered in the classroom, the volunteer took me to my dormitory.                
3.(2017·铁岭市联考)I think I can improve me a lot in this way, because where there is a will, there is a way.
                      
them→it
After后加I
me→myself
4.(2017·大庆实验中学模拟)In recent years people around the world may feel it that the climate has been getting 
warmer and warmer.														      
5.(2017·石家庄市一模)Mistakes are unavoidable in life.But attitudes towards it may make a difference.			        
6.(2017·蚌埠二中模拟)I would appreciate greatly if you could consider my application.					               
7.(2017·淮南二中模拟)Meanwhile, buses should have its own special routes which cannot be used by other vehicles.
                 
去掉it
it→them
appreciate后加it
its→their
8.(2017·枣阳市模拟)He had a deep voice, which set himself apart from others in our small town.                   
9.(2017·汕头市模拟)This kind of traveler just needs to pack a pair of sunglasses together with everything that he needs 
it.                                                
10.(2017·哈尔滨三中模拟)What we have gained from this camp is not only knowledge, but also friendship.I hope 
their friendship will last forever.                      
himself→him
去掉it
their→our

Ⅰ.单句语法填空
1.(2017·哈尔滨市模拟)The third thing to keep  mind 
about failure is that it’s a part of life.
2.(2017·福州八中质检) our excitement, our parade 
performance was a great success.
3.(2017·豫南九校模拟)My parents and teachers were surprised    my bad performance.
4.(2017·石家庄市质检)Many foreigners get more familiar  Chinese culture through “red packets”.
in
To
at
with

5.(2017·衡水中学模拟)When I was younger, I didnt have 
the great love      music as I do now.
6.(2017·淮北市模拟)In my opinion, we also learned something very important       Samantha’s speech.
7.(2017·锦州市模拟) mother and father’s love, 
I would not lead such a happy life now.
8.(2017·银川九中模拟)Foot traffic accounts  80% of all 
traffic in the Copenhagen city center.
for
from
Without
for
9.(2017·昆明质量检测)A lack  water can lead to health 
problems such as headaches, poor physical performance, 
and even more serious problems.
10.(2017·深圳市模拟)If you could exchange lives someone for a short time, would you like to do that?
of
with
Ⅱ.单句改错
1.(2017·日照市一模)Many students in our class are weak on English reading comprehension.                      
2.(2017·厦门一中模拟)My parents and I went to the park on last Sunday.                                     
3.(2017·淮南二中模拟)Nowadays, people in many big cities are complaining the heavy traffic.                        
4.(2017·银川九中模拟)The match will be played among Xinhua Middle School Basketball Team and ours.
                               
on→in
去掉on
complaining后加about
among→between
5.(2017·定州中学模拟)It had never occurred me that studying could be so interesting until I met Ms.Li.                   
6.(2017·山西省实验中学质检)As time went by, the weather turned to cold gradually.                               
7.(2017·石家庄二中模拟)Gathering around here, we practise spoken English by talking about everything we are 
interested.                                           
8.(2017·南昌市一模)Secondly, some students have to cheat in exams because of they are too lazy.                      
occurred后加to
去掉to
interested后加in
去掉of
9.(2017·漳州市八校联考)Under the help of my mother, I made rapid progress in English.                   
10.(2017·天水一中诊断)In my view, we should limit to our using smartphones except for the purpose of 
learning.                                     
Under→With
去掉to
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