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2018年高考英语通用版二轮专题复习三维课件:专题复习3部曲 3 第5讲 情态动词、助动词和虚拟语气

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* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 类别 从句谓语动词 主句谓语动词 与现在事实相反 过去式(be用were) should/would/could/ might+动词原形 与过去事实相反 had+过去分词 should/would/could/ might+have+过去分词 与将来事实相反 过去式(be用were) should/would/could/ might+动词原形 should+动词原形 were to+动词原形 类别 从句谓语动词 主句谓语动词 混合条件句 有时条件句的动作与主句动作发生的时间不一致,这时动词的形式应根据它们各自表示的时间加以调整。 含蓄条件句 有时假设的情况不以条件从句表达,而是用but for, without等介词(短语)表示条件。 错综虚实句 ①用连词otherwise, or等暗示后文与前面的情况相反,从而引出后文的虚拟语气。 ②虚拟条件通过but暗示出来,模式为“虚拟情况+but+真实情况”。 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 第5讲           情态动词、助动词和虚拟语气
情态动词和助动词在语法填空中鲜有考查,但在写作中经常用到,对于有些考生来说情态动词和助动词是掌握的难点,在写作中经常犯低级错误而造成不应有的失分,因此在二轮备考中应加强对这一部分的学习。
一、基础保分类考点——这些语法较简单,以练促学把分捡第1~6讲

单句语法填空/单句改错
①(2017·全国卷Ⅱ书面表达)The exhibition will  (hold) 
in the City Museum, located in the north of our city.
②(2015·全国卷Ⅰ)We must found ways to protect our environment.																           
③(2016·全国卷Ⅱ)We can chose between staying at home and taking a trip.															              
be held
[自主练悟]
found→find
chose→choose
④(2016·全国卷Ⅰ书面表达)You can correcting any mistakes you find in them.												                 
⑤(2016·江苏高考书面表达)Therefore, rules should worked out and strictly observed.											            
⑥(2016·全国卷Ⅲ书面表达)I should available any time after school next week.															             
correcting→correct
should后加be
should后加be
⑦(2016·北京高考书面表达)As for my favorite figure in Chinese history, it must Wei Yuan, a great thinker in the 
late Qing Dynasty.													            
⑧(2015·天津高考改编)I neednt worried before I came 
to the new school, for my classmates here are very friendly 
to me.											                
must后加be
worried前加have
[易错提醒]
1.情态动词不能单独作谓语,必须和后面的实义动词或be动词一起构成谓语。写作时,考生常由于低级失误而在情态动词后接动词的过去式、过去分词或现在分词;或者由于受汉语的影响而漏掉情态动词后面的be动词。
2.情态动词后跟完成时主要指过去,包括对过去的推测、表达遗憾、表示责备等。做题时,考生会忽视情态动词之后的完成时而误用一般时,或者知道该用完成时而漏掉have。
[题组练通]
Ⅰ.单句改错
1.(2015·重庆高考书面表达)If you could provided more specific information, I would be well grateful.
                                   
2.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ书面表达)We should back around 4 o’clock in the afternoon.										            
3.Life is unpredictable; even the poorest may to become the richest.																		        
4.We neednt bought so much food now that Suzie won’t 
be with us for dinner.										                
provided→provide
back前加be
去掉to
bought前加have
5.You should come to the meeting.What was the reason for your absence?														              
6.I love the weekend, because I neednt to get up early on 
Saturdays and Sundays.													       
7.You could done it better, but you didnt try your best.
                           
8.Harry is feeling uncomfortable.He must have drank too much at the party last night.							               
come前加have
去掉to
done前加have
drank→drunk
Ⅱ.单句写作
1.(2017·全国卷Ⅱ书面表达)在这次展览中,你能看到各种形式的剪纸。
In this exhibition, you  with all 
kinds of patterns.
2.(2017·全国卷Ⅲ书面表达)如果你要参加,你可以发送你的信息到pingpong@123.com.。
If you will join, you pingpong@123.com.
can see paper­cutting
may send your information to
3.(2015·福建高考书面表达)我们应该尽力通过学习提升自我并为将来做好准备。
We  to improve ourselves through 
learning and get prepared for the future.
4.昨晚一定下雨了,因为路很泥泞。
It  last night, for the ground is quite 
muddy.
5.你本不必打车来这里的,因为这里离我家很近。
You  here, for it was near my 
home.
should take pains
must have rained
needn?t have taken a taxi

单句语法填空/单句改错
①(2014·全国卷Ⅱ)Then the driver stood up and asked,“     anyone lose a suitcase at the last stop?”
②(2016·全国卷Ⅲ书面表达)I just found that I have to attend an important class meeting that afternoon.			            
③(2016·浙江高考书面表达)However, a plan can bear no fruit without actually carried out.								                
[自主练悟]
Did
just前加have
without后加being
④(2015·江苏高考书面表达)But rules alone not secure an orderly society.									                        
⑤(2015·陕西高考书面表达)I writing to apply for the position as a student volunteer.															          
⑥(2015·浙江高考书面表达)Without hesitation, I decided to follow them and we did had lots of fun that day.
                                      
not前加do或not→dont
I后加am
had→have或去掉did
⑦(2015·安徽高考书面表达)I have long interested in space exploration and I believe I could learn a great deal from him about it.⑧(2014·全国卷Ⅰ书面表达)I seen your ad, and Id like to know something more about your six­week English course.
                        
interested前加been
seen前加have
1.助动词do/does/did主要帮助构成疑问句、否定句及部分倒装。助动词do/does/did后只能跟动词原形,助动词不能用作实义动词。
2.助动词be/being/been主要帮助构成进行时、完成进行时和各种被动语态。需注意be虽然没有实际意义,但却是结构中不可缺少的。
3.助动词have/has/had主要是帮助构成完成时态和完成进行时态。需注意其构成形式have/has/had done和have/has/had been doing。
[易错提醒]
[题组练通]
Ⅰ.单句改错
1.(2015·陕西高考书面表达)I will grateful if you could give me a kind consideration.											          
2.(2015·北京高考书面表达)I writing to tell you my exciting plan for the summer holiday.										        
3.She had taught us English when I attended training courses two years ago.													        
4.Only if do you obey the rules can you prevent your eyesight becoming short­sighted.									      
will后加be
I后加am
去掉had
去掉do
5.The man returned the handbag after he made sure it was belonged to her.																         
6.She doesnt her homework in the morning but in the 
evening.														                
7.Great changes have been taken place in my hometown since the reform and opening.									         
8.He said the machine was not so good as he read from our advertisement in the newspaper bought two days before.
                          
去掉was
doesn’t后加do
去掉been
read前加had
Ⅱ.单句写作
1.(2015·湖南高考书面表达)从那时起,数学就成为我最喜欢的学科之一,而且我也在数学上进步很快。
Since then, maths , 
and I                             in maths.
2.我们应该尽我们所能防止环境受到污染。
We must try our best to prevent .
has become one of my favorite subjects
have also made rapid progress
the environment from
being polluted
3.人们筹集了大量的钱送到遭受水灾的难民手中。
Large quantities of money  to be sent 
to the refugees in the flooded area.
4.直到河水被严重污染了,当地政府才意识到这个问题。
Not until the river was seriously polluted  the problem.
5.我确实珍惜这个受教育的机会,总是把这个箴言当作座右铭。
I  and I always 
adopt the motto to serve as a reminder.
have been collected
did the local
government realize
do cherish the educational opportunity
虚拟语气在语法填空中鲜有考查,但在写作中属于高级句式,为了避免因不熟悉这部分语法知识而造成不应有的失分,因此在二轮备考中,考生应加强对这一部分的学习。

[自主练悟]
单句语法填空/单句改错
①(2017·北京高考改编)If the new safety system (put) to use, the accident would never have happened.
②(2017·天津高考改编)—Do you have Bettys phone 
number?
—Yes.Otherwise, I                       (not be) able to 
reach her yesterday.
had been put
wouldn?t have been
③(2017·银川一中二模)If you had planted it in a good place, at least someone                    (enjoy) the fruit.
④(2015·四川高考)If you are me, would you talk to them?would have enjoyed
are→were
[谨记规律]
虚拟语气在条件状语从句中的应用

[自主练悟]
单句语法填空/单句改错
①(2015·天津高考改编)I wish I  (be) at my sister’s 
wedding last Tuesday, but I was on a business trip in New 
York then.
②(2014·陕西高考改编)We would rather our daughter (stay) at home with us, but it is her choice, and she is not a 
child any longer.
had been
stayed
③(2017·潍坊中学模拟)It is time I  (do) 
something in return for their love.
④(2017·肇庆市模拟)He was still running with a smile on his face, as if nothing               (happen).
⑤(2017·银川一中二模)I suggest that our school must take measures to encourage more students to take part in sports.
                                                  
did/should do
had happened
must→should或去掉must
[谨记规律]
虚拟语气在其他从句中的应用
1.wish后面的宾语从句:
(1)表示与现在事实相反,从句用一般过去时;
(2)表示与过去事实相反,从句用过去完成时;
(3)表示与将来事实相反,从句用would/could+动词原形。2.would rather后面的宾语从句:
(1)表示与现在或将来事实相反时从句用一般过去时;
(2)表示与过去事实相反时从句用过去完成时。
3.表示主张、命令、建议、要求等词后的宾语从句和同位语从句常用“should+动词原形”结构,should可省略。
4.定语从句:
Its (high/about) time (that) ...句型中,从句的谓语动词用一般过去时或should+动词原形(其中should不可省略),意为“确实到了……的时候了”。
5.as if引导的状语从句中:
(1)表示与现在事实相反用一般过去时;
(2)表示与过去事实相反用过去完成时。

Ⅰ.单句语法填空/单句改错
1.I should not have laughed if I  (think) you 
were serious.
2.I would  (go) to my cousin’s birthday party 
last night, but I was not available.
3.We often hear that children wish they  (be) 
grown­ups, and that old people wish to be young.
4.The teacher demanded that the homework  (finish) by Friday.
had thought
have gone
were
(should) be
finished
5.Dont handle the vase as if it       (be) made of steel.
6.(2017·本溪市模拟)Some players insist that their employers  (sign) a contract stating that they will not 
have to move for a certain number of years.
7.(2017·九江市模拟)However, I suggest that you chose to study in the east, because there are many international 
students there and the tuition is lower.			              
8.(2017·蚌埠市模拟)However, its high time that immediate 
measures must be taken.										              
were
(should) sign
chose→choose
must→should
Ⅱ.单句写作
1.(2017·全国卷Ⅱ书面表达)我希望你能抓住这次机会更进一步地学习中国传统文化。
I wish that traditional Chinese culture further.
2.(2015·四川高考书面表达)为了掌握普通话,我强烈建议你找中国人进行练习。
To master Mandarin, I  with Chinese people.
you could grasp this opportunity to learn
strongly suggest you (should)
practice
3.第二,如果我是你,我会在傍晚和朋友一起散步。
Secondly,  in the 
evening with my friends.
4.童年的一切一下子涌入我的大脑,仿佛刚刚发生似的。
Everything in my childhood crowed upon my mind .
5.是我们该采取措施与经济领域的犯罪作斗争的时候了。
 to fight 
against crimes in the economic field.
if I were you, I would take a walk
as if
they had just happened
It?s high time that we took/should take measures
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