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当前位置: 高考学习网 > 2018年高考英语通用版二轮专题复习三维课件:专题复习3部曲 3 第6讲 构词法

2018年高考英语通用版二轮专题复习三维课件:专题复习3部曲 3 第6讲 构词法

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* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 构成 例词 名词+名词 newspaper             报纸 babysitter              保姆 airport                   机场 schoolmate            校友 形容词+名词 greenhouse            温室 highway                 高速公路 mainland               大陆 shorthand              速记 动词+副词 get­together          联欢会 breakdown            崩溃 breakthrough        突破 构成 例词 副词+动词 outbreak                爆发 output                    产量 downfall                垮台 outcome                结果 其他构成 well­being            健康 grown­up             成年人 passer­by             路人 go­between          媒人 bride­to­be         准新娘 parents­to­be     准父母 son­in­law          女婿 by­product          副产品 构成 例词 形容词/数词+名词+­ed warm­hearted               热心的 blue­eyed                       蓝眼睛的 absent­minded              心不在焉的 middle­aged                  中年的 nine­storeyed                九层楼的 three­legged                  三条腿的 one­sided                      片面的 构成 例词 名词/副词+分词 peace­loving              热爱和平的 English­speaking      讲英语的 meat­eating               食肉的 man­made                 人造的 snow­covered            白雪覆盖的 handmade                  手工的 state­owned                国有的 well­dressed               穿着体面的 newly­built                 新建的 widespread                  广泛流传的 构成 例词 名词+形容词 world­famous       世界著名的 ice­cool                  冰冷的 snow­white           雪白的 grass­green           草绿的 tax­free                 免税的 fat­free                 无脂的 trouble­free          无忧无虑的 形容词+名词 full­time               全职的 part­time             兼职的 second­hand        二手的  upper­class         上层阶级的,上流社会的 high­grade           品质优良的 large­scale           大规模的 构成 例词 形容词+分词 good­looking              好看的 easy­going                  随和的 slow­moving              移动缓慢的 数词+名词+形容词 200­meter­long   200 米长的 1,000­word­long       1 000词长的 18­year­old               18岁大的 20­meter­wide          20 米宽的 构成 例词 合成动词 upset                    使心烦意乱 overcome             克服 overjoy                使狂喜 overthrow           推翻 oversleep             睡过头 undergo               经历 overcharge          超额收费 overbook             超额预订 构成 例词 合成副词 afterwards            以后,后来 inwards                 向内地 upwards                向上地 downwards           向下地 forward                 向前,前进 upstairs                 在楼上 anywhere              任何地方 anyhow                 无论如何 forever                  永远 合成介词 outside                   在……外面 without                  没有 within                    在……之内 into                        进入 onto                       到……之上 * * * * * * * * * * * * 后缀 例词 ­age short→shortage     不足;短缺 ­cy efficient→efficiency  效率;功效 fluent→fluency                流利;流畅 accurate→accuracy        准确性 private→privacy             隐私;私密 ­dom free→freedom     自由;自主 wise→wisdom                  明智;智慧 ­ence different→difference   差异 silent→silence                  沉默 后缀 例词 ­ness weak→weakness       虚弱;弱点 kind→kindness                     仁慈;好意 careless→carelessness          粗心大意 dark→darkness                    黑暗 ­th strong→strength      力气;强项 warm→warmth                    温暖;热情 true→truth                            真实 wide→width                          宽度 ­y ­ty ­ity difficult→difficulty     困难 cruel→cruelty                       残酷;残暴 safe→safety                           安全 disable→disability                无能;残疾 responsible→responsibility 责任 后缀 例词 ­al approve→approval     赞成;批准 arrive→arrival                  到来;到达 survive→survival              幸存 propose→proposal            提议;建议 ­ance appear→appearance   出现;外貌 guide→guidance                指引;指导 perform→performance    表演;节目 ­ence exist→existence     存在;生存 prefer→preference           偏爱 refer→reference               参考;查阅 后缀 例词 ­ion attract→attraction      吸引 construct→construction         建设 educate→education                教育 evaluate→evaluation              评估 graduate→graduation            毕业 ­ation expect→expectation      期待;期望 explain→explanation             解释 consider→consideration        考虑 imagine→imagination           想象力 starve→starvation                 挨饿 invite→invitation                   邀请;请柬 后缀 例词 ­(s)sion discuss→discussion    讨论;辩论 decide→decision               决定 admit→admission             接纳;准许入学 ­ing hear→hearing        听力;听觉begin→beginning              开始 ­ment achieve→achievement   功绩;成就 argue→argument              辩论;论据 treat→treatment               对待;治疗 equip→equipment            设备 后缀 例词 ­ure fail→failure     失败;没做到 press→pressure              压力 ­ture mix→mixture     混合;混合物depart→departure         离开;出发 ­y recover→recovery   恢复;痊愈 discover→discovery       发现 其他 grow→growth    成长;发展 choose→choice               选择 vary→variety                多样化;种类 tend→tendency             趋向;趋势 后缀 例词 ­able accept→acceptable        可接受的 comfort→comfortable         舒适的 fashion→fashionable           时髦的 suit→suitable                       合适的 reason→reasonable             有道理的 ­al music→musical          音乐的 origin→original                   最初的 person→personal                个人的;私人的 center→central                   中央的;中心的 nature→natural                  自然的;天生的 form→formal                      正式的 nation→national                 全国的 后缀 例词 ­ful doubt→doubtful    怀疑的 forget→forgetful             健忘的 harm→harmful              有害的 hope→hopeful                有希望的 peace→peaceful              和平的 care→careful                   细心的 use→useful                      有用的 help→helpful                  有帮助的 ­ed scare→scared      感到恐惧的 confuse→confused          感到困惑的 puzzle→puzzled              迷惑的 worry→worried              担心的 bore→bored                    感到厌倦的 excite→excited                激动的;兴奋的 underline→underlined  加下划线的 后缀 例词 ­ing surprise→surprising  令人惊讶的 convince→convincing       令人信服的 satisfy→satisfying             令人满意的 worry→worrying              令人担心的 bore→boring                     令人厌烦的 ­ible access→accessible             容易到达的;                                             容易取得的 horror→horrible               可怕的;恐怖的 terror→terrible                 可怕的 后缀 例词 ­ive act→active       积极的;活跃的 effect→effective                 有效的;生效的 attract→attractive             有吸引力的 impress→impressive          给人深刻印象的 instruct→instructive          有教育意义的 expense→expensive            昂贵的 后缀 例词 ­ous continue→continuous   不断的;持续的 anxiety→anxious              忧虑的 caution→cautious            十分小心的;谨慎的 curiosity→curious            好奇的 humor→humorous          幽默的 ­some tire→tiresome      令人厌倦的 trouble→troublesome     麻烦的 后缀 例词 ­y taste→tasty    美味的;可口的 health→healthy         健康的 wealth→wealthy        富裕的;丰富的 dirt→dirty                  有灰尘的;脏的 rain→rainy                 有雨的 sun→sunny                 阳光明媚的 cloud→cloudy             阴天的 ­ern east→eastern     东方的;向东的 west→western             西方的;向西的 后缀 例词 ­ish child→childish    孩子气的 fool→foolish                 愚蠢的;可笑的 self→selfish                  自私的 ­ic science→scientific    科学的 economy→economic   经济的 history→historic          历史上著名的 ­ary imagine→imaginary 想象中的 后缀 例词 ­er clean→cleaner      清洁工 report→reporter          记者 strange→stranger         陌生人 ­or invent→inventor     发明者 visit→visitor                  游客 direct→director            导演 后缀 例词 ­ar lie→liar          说谎者 beg→beggar                       乞讨者,乞丐 ­ee employ→employee    雇员 interview→interviewee     参加面试者 train→trainee                     受训者,学员 ­ess host→hostess      女主人 act→actress                        女演员 ­ian music→musician      音乐家 politics→politician             政治家 history→historian             历史学家 后缀 例词 ­ist art→artist         艺术家 science→scientist             科学家 piano→pianist                  钢琴家 ­ant serve→servant         仆人 participate→participant  参加者 assist→assistant                助手,图书管理员 前/后缀 例词 前缀 dis­ agree→disagree      不同意 advantage→disadvantage     缺点 appear→disappear               消失 comfort→discomfort            不舒适的 honest→dishonest                 不诚实的 il­ legal→illegal       不合法的 logical→illogical                   不合逻辑的 im­ polite→impolite       无礼的 patient→impatient              不耐烦的 moral→immoral                  不道德的 前/后缀 例词 前缀 in­ formal→informal      非正式的 convenient→inconvenient       不方便的 direct→indirect                        间接引起的 ir­ regular→irregular       不规则的 responsible→irresponsible      不负责任的 mis­ lead→mislead         误导 understand→misunderstand  误解 un­ usual→unusual      不寻常的 willing→unwilling                   不愿意的 happy→unhappy                     不高兴的 known→unknown                   不出名的 前/后缀 例词 后缀 ­less hope→hopeless   绝望的 end→endless                没完没了的 care→careless             粗心的 help→helpless             无助的 use→useless                无用的 前/后缀 例词 前缀 en­ able→enable      使能够 large→enlarge            扩大 rich→enrich               使充实;使丰富 danger→endanger     危及 courage→encourage  鼓励 后缀 ­en broad→broaden  使变宽 ripe→ripen                 使成熟 sharp→sharpen          使尖锐 wide→widen                加宽 short→shorten            变短 deep→deepen              加深 dark→darken             使变暗 hard→harden             使变硬 前/后缀 例词 后缀 ­ify class→classify         把……分类 just→justify                   证明……正确 simple→simplify            简化 beauty→beautify           美化 ­ize apology→apologize    道歉 emphasis→emphasize   强调 memory→memorize     记住 real→realize                   认识到;实现 转化规则 例词 注意 名词→动词 face(n.脸→v.面对) shoulder(n.肩→v.肩负) water(n.水→v.浇水) back(n.背→v.支持) name(n.名字→v.命名) high, deep, wide用作副词时表示具体,而highly, deeply, widely表示抽象。 动词→名词 look(v./n.)看 try(v./n.)尝试 dream(v./n.)梦想 chat (v./n.)聊天 转化规则 例词 注意 形容词→动词 empty(adj.空的→v.倒空) slow(adj.慢的→v.减慢) dirty(adj.脏的→v.弄脏) warm(adj.暖的→v.使变暖) high, deep, wide用作副词时表示具体,而highly, deeply, widely表示抽象。 形容词→副词 hard(adj.难的→adv.努力) high(adj.高的→adv.高) deep(adj.深的→adv.深) wide(adj.宽的→adv.宽) * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 第6讲        构词法
正确运用构词法知识,是词汇学习的重要途径,同时也是扩大词汇量的一个重要方法。英语中构词法主要分为派生法、转化法和合成法。牢固掌握并熟练运用构词法知识,不仅有助于提高考生对阅读中生词进行辨识的能力,更能够灵活运用到语法填空和短文改错对于词性转化的考查当中。
[特别说明] 第3讲中已做具体讲解,本讲不再赘述。
一、基础保分类考点——这些语法较简单,以练促学把分捡第1~6讲
一、派生法
在一个词的词根之前或之后加上某个词缀来生成一个新词的构词法,即称作派生法。加在词根之前的词缀叫作前缀,加在词根之后的为后缀。
1.形容词变名词的后缀
2.
3.、
4.“人”的名词后缀
在某些形容词、名词或动词后面加后缀变成具有某种职业或动作的人。常见的表示“人”的后缀有:
5.表示否定或相反意义的前缀和后缀
6.

转化法是由一种词类转化为一种或几种词类的构词法。这种构词法词形没有改变,转化后的单词在意义上通常与原单词有密切联系。

把两个或两个以上的单词合成一个新的单词的构词法叫作合成法。以合成法构成的单词称作合成词,包括合成名词、合成动词、合成形容词、合成副词等。
1.合成名词
2.合成形容词
3.其他合成词
[随堂巩固训练]
Ⅰ.单句语法填空
1.With the  (develop) of industry, air pollution
is getting more and more serious.
2.(2017·淮北市模拟)Im so          (thank) that we had
candles on hand that dark night.
3.(2017·湖北省七市联考)All of a sudden, my heart wasfilled with          (warm).
4.(2017·湖北省七市联考)I shared the photo and my  (forget) experiences with my friends.
development
thankful
warmth
unforgettable
5.(2017·西安市模拟)White tea is helpful in preventing cavities and building the          (strong) of your teeth.
6.(2017·青岛市模拟)If you always go to bed and get up at about the same time, this will set a         (health) 
rhythm in your life.
7.(2017·河南省百校联盟质检)The soldiers stood about six feet tall, and each appeared to have his own            
(personal).
8.There are more and more cars, buses on the roads, and they give off           (poison) gases.
strength
healthy
personality
poisonous
9.(2017·九江市模拟)Most pubs have no waiters — you have to go to the bar (吧台) to buy drinks.This may sound  (convenient), but English people are used to 
doing so.
10.(2017·皖南八校联考)If youre looking for some new 
and          (create) ways to improve your health, try 
Fit Time.
11.(2017·唐山市调研考试)She asked me whether I would give a one­day lecture on stress              (manage) 
to 200 medical workers.
inconvenient
creative
management
12.He looked so happy when he enjoyed the  (free)
of running on the grass.
13.I bought her a bunch of  (color) sunflowers and 
tapped the envelope to it.
14.The high school boys love playing basketball, and it is a  (use) way to release their study         (press).
15.(2017·海口市调研测试)He always spoke the truth.And his            (judge) of men was good.
freedom
colorful
useful
pressure
judgment
16.(2017·琼海市模拟)Moreover, both students and teachers have expressed their           (happy) with these courses.
17.(2017·石家庄市一模)The book gives a detailed (explain) of the origin, the processing skills and the 
classification of tea.
18.(2017·淮北市模拟)It was such a shock when they announced the         (win) was Jim.
19.(2017·江南十校联考)The online books will be renewed and enriched gradually according to readers’ borrowing 
habits and            (prefer).
happiness
explanation
winner
preference
20.(2017·厦门一中模拟)Then, handle the most important tasks first so you’ll feel a real sense of             
(achieve).
21.Keeping a diary in English is an  (effect) way to 
improve our English writing ability.
22.(2017·淮北市模拟)Once following this routine, you will gradually see that you feel         (sleep) when it’s 9 
o’clock.
23.(2017·佛山市模拟)I believe my father is a (talent) man.He is decisive and efficient in doing things.
achievement
effective
sleepy
talented
24.(2017·成都市模拟)Experts hope the whole  (social) 
pays more attention to the mental health of adolescents.
25.(2017·太原五中检测)If you have time, you should witness the true         (beautiful) of China’s landmark.
26.(2017·陕西师大附中模拟)I called the  (own) of the 
restaurant and asked what was the matter with the man.
27.In an attempt to be open and  (friend), people in 
the United States smile a lot.
society
beauty
owner
friendly
28.(2017·马鞍山市质检)But every driver who stopped to examine the note drove off without saying a word.There 
we were,          (help) and lost in China.
29.(2017·长沙市联考)However, customers must be convinced the goods they receive are real, and that the supplier is 
        (rely).
30.(2017·宝鸡市模拟)Its natural that young people are 
often               (comfortable) when they are with 
their parents.
helpless
reliable
uncomfortable
Ⅱ.单句改错
1.(2017·成都市模拟)As we know, challenge as it was, it was very benefit to us.										                   
2.(2017·成都市模拟)It reflected their lack of concern for the safe of both others and themselves.						            
3.(2017·江南十校联考)To my happy, she could cook some delicious food for me.									                 
4.(2017·海口市调研测试)I am so luck to have some friends who share the same interest with me.					              
benefit→beneficial
safe→safety
happy→happiness
luck→lucky
5.(2017·深圳市模拟)My suggest is: Tell your parents that you want to be trusted.								                  
6.(2017·淮北市模拟)Were living in a world where we can 
never stress the important of sharing too much.
                                            
7.(2017·成都市模拟)I am confidence to take care of myself, wash the clothes, and clean the rooms, which I never did 
when at home.											                     
suggest→suggestion
important→importance
confidence→confident
8.(2017·西安市模拟)It was the first time I had lived away from my home, so I found it difficulty to fit in.
                                    
9.(2017·兰州一中模拟)Her disappointing look showed that she failed the exam again.                            
10.(2017·山师附中模拟)Unluckily, he was the only one who finally got the job, because the manager decided to give 
the job to whoever he believed was helpful.
                                     
difficulty→difficult
disappointing→disappointed
Unluckily→Luckily
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