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2012年高考真题——英语(上海卷)解析版

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2012年高考真题——英语(上海卷)解析版
考生注意:
1.考试时间120分钟,试卷满分150分。
2.本考试设试卷和答题纸两部分。试卷分为第1卷(第1-12页)和第II卷(第13页),
  全卷共13页。所有答题必须涂(选择题)或写(非选择题)在答题纸上,做在试卷上
  一律不得分。
3.答题前,务必在答题纸上填写准考证号和姓名,并将核对后的条形码贴在指定位置上。
第1卷    (共105分)
I . Listening Comprehension
Section A
Directions:In Section A, you will hear ten short conversations between two speakers.   At the
end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was said.   The conversations and
the questions will be spoken only once.   After you hear a conversation and the question about it,
read the four possible answers on your paper, and decide which one is the best answer to the
question you have heard.
1. A. At a library.       	B. At a hotel.        	C. At a bank.        	D. At an airport.
2. A. Relaxed.          	B. Annoyed.        	C. Worried.          	D. Satisfied
3. A. Doctor and patient.   						B. Shop owner and customer.
C. Secretary and boss.      					D. Receptionist and guest.
4. A. He would have thrown $300 around.        	B. $300 is not enough for the concert.
  C. Sandy shouldn't have given that much.      	D. Dave must be mad with the money
5. A. She lives close to the man.       			B. She changes her mind at last.
  C. She will turn to her manager.   				D. She declines the man's offer.
6. A.2     				B.3.  				C.4.					D. 5
7. A. Both of them drink too much coffee. 			B. The woman doesn't Like coffee at all.
  C. They help each other stop drinking coffee.  	D. The man is uninterested in the woman's story
8. A. He doesn't. mind helping the woman. 			B. He hesitates whether to help or not.
C. He'll help if the woman doesn't mind			D. He can't help move the cupboard.
9. A. He's planning to find a new job. 				B. He prefers to keep his house in a mess.
  C. He's too busy to clean his house				D. He has already cleaned his new house,
10. A. She doesn't agree with the man.   			B. She is good at finding a place to stay.
C. She could hardly find the truth. 				D. She had no travel experience in Britain.
Section B
Directions:  In Section B, you will hear two short passages, and you will be asked three questions on each of the passages. The passages will be read twice, but the questions will be spoken only once.   When you hear a question, read the four possible answers on your paper and decide which one would be the best answer to the question you have heard.
Questions 11 through 13 are based on the following passage
11. A. Use the company's equipment.   			B. Give orders to robots
C. Make decisions for the company.  			D. Act as Big Brother.
12. A. Employees gain full freedom.     			B. Employees suspect one another.
   C. Employees' children are happy.    			D. Employees enjoy working there.
13. A. Reward.   			B. Safety.      		C. Trust.  			D. Honesty
Questions 14 through 16 are based on the following passage
14. A. Canada had a smaller population.            B. Land was cheaper in Canada.
   C. They wanted to continue the Revolution.    	D. They were against Britain.
15. A. They standardized Canadian English.   		B. They settled there after the Revolution.
   C. They enjoy a very high social position.   		D. They make up a small part of the population
16. A. It is considered unique to some extent.  		B. It is greatly influenced by French.
   C. It is mainly linked to British culture.      	D. It dates back to the late 17th century.
Section C
Directions:  In Section C, you will hear two longer conversations. The conversations will be read twice. After you hear each conversation, you are required to fill in the numbered blanks with the information you have heard.    Write your answers on your answer sheet.
Blanks 17 through 20 are based on the following conversation.
Complete the form.   Write ONE WORD for each answer.

Blanks 21 through 24 are based on the following conversation.
Complete the form.  Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.

II. Grammar and Vocabulary
Section A
Directions: Beneath each of the following sentences there are four choices marked A, B, C and D.   Choose the one answer that best completes the sentence.
25.           passion, people won't have the motivation or the joy necessary for creative thinking.
  A. For     .  			B. Without        	C. Beneath       		D. By
【答案】B
【解析】26. Is honesty the best policy? We _       that it is when we are little.
  A. will teach         	B. teach             	C. are taught        	D. will be taught
【答案】【解析】27. As Jack left his membership card at home, he wasn't allowed            into the sports club.
  A. going       		B. to go          	C. go          		D. gone
【答案】【解析】allow sb. to do sth.  be allowed to do sth.  allow doing sth.句意:杰克因为把会员卡忘在家里了,所以他没有被允许进运动俱乐部。
28. The new law states that people _ drive after drinking alcohol.
   A. wouldn't        	B. needn't       		C. won't           	D. mustn't
【答案】【解析】29. Only with the greatest of luck _       to escape from the rising flood waters.
   A. managed she       	B. she managed      	C. did she manage    	D. she did manage
【答案】【解析】Only+状语位于句首,句子要部分倒装。只是有了最好的运气,她才成功逃脱了正在上涨的洪水的袭击。
30.—I hear that Jason is planning to buy a car.
  —I know. By next month, he _      enough for a used one.
   A. will have saved    	B. will be saving     	C. has saved         	D. saves

31.When he took his gloves off, I noticed that             one had his name written inside.
   A. each              	B. every             C. other            	D. another
【答案】【解析】32. I have a tight budget for the trip, so I'm not going to fly _      the airlines lower ticket prices.
   A. once      			B. if                C. after              D. unless
【答案】【解析】33. When Peter speaks in public, he always has trouble        _ the right things to say.
   A. thinking of         B. to think of       	C. thought of        	D. think of  .
【答案】【解析】have trouble(in)doing的结构。句意:大庭广众之下讲话,皮特总是要搜肠括肚想想该说的事。
34. There is much truth in the idea _         kindness is usually served by frankness.
   A. why         		B. which          	C. that             	D. whether
35. Have you sent thank-you notes to the relatives from _    _ you received gifts?
   A. which       		B. them             C. that               D. whom
【答案】D
【解析】from whom=and from them。句意:你从亲戚那儿收到了礼物后,有没有给他们发感谢信?
36. The club, _    _ 25 years ago, is holding a party for past and present members.
   A. founded            B. founding    		C. being founded      D. to be founded
【答案】【解析】founded=which was founded。句意:建于25年前的这家俱乐部正在为新老会员举行晚会。
37.—Was it by cutting down staff  _    _she saved the firm?
   —No, it was by improving work efficiency.
   A. when        		B. what      		C. how           	D. that
【答案】【解析】cutting down staff进行强调。句意:—是不是只有通过裁员她才能拯救公司的命运?—不是,要通过提高工作效率来拯救。
38.—We've only got this small bookcase. Will that do?
   —No, _    _ I am looking for is something much bigger and stronger.
   A. who           		B. that          		C. what             D. which

39. "Genius" is a complicated concept, _    _ many different factors.
   A. involved    		B. involving  ,   		C. to involve     		D. being involved
【答案】【解析】concept与involve是主动关系,用现在分词。现在分词短语作非限制性定语。“天才”是一个复杂的概念,涉及了许多不同的因素。
40. The map is one of the best tools a man has _    _ he goes to a new place.
      A. whenever   		B. whatever        	C. wherever        	D. however
【答案】【解析】Section B
Directions:  Complete the following passage by using the words in the box. Each word can only be used once. Note that there is one word more than you need.
A. maintained        B. serious      	C. indications         D. figures        E. anxious
F. concern           G crisis       	H. decided          	I. available      	J. reversed
    Filmgoers should be told how many calories there are in the popcorn, ice cream and soft drinks that they buy in cinemas, according to the Food Standard Agency.
   Smaller popcorn buckets and drink cups should also be made  41  , the nutrition inspector said.
   Tim Smith, chief executive of the agency, told The Times that cinemas should help to deal with the country's overweight    42   .
     "There is a misbelief that popcorn is calorie-free, but that is not the case. It is a     43    to us," he said. "Portion sizes are also a big issue, and there seems to be increasingly big packs on
sale."
     He spoke as a number of food chains such as Pret A Manger, Wimpey and The Real Greek  44     to put calorie counts on all their menus.
    A trial scheme(试行方案) with 21 food companies took place last summer, and   45   are that consumers altered their buying habits when they realized the number of calories in a product.
    A consultation(征询意见) on the trial ends next month but Mr. Smith is already planning the second drive for American-style calorie counts and is   46   to win support from cinemas and other entertainment places, from football grounds to concert halls.
     Government    47  suggest that two thirds of adults and a third of children are overweight. If trends are not   48    , this could rise to almost nine in ten adults and two thirds of children by 2050, putting them at 
  49   risk of heart disease, cancer and other diseases.
 
III. Reading Comprehension
Section A
Directions:  For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A,
B, C and D.   Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context.
    People on a college campus were more likely to give money to the March of Dimes if they were asked for a donation by a disabled woman in a wheelchair than if asked by a nondisabled woman. In another     50    , subway riders in New York saw a man carrying a stick stumble(绊脚) and fall to the floor. Sometimes the victim had a large red birthmark on his   51  ; sometimes he did not. In this situation, the victim was more likely to     52     aid if his face was spotless than if he had an unattractive birthmark. In    53    these and other research findings, two themes are   54   : we are more willing to help people we like for some reason and people we think _ 55  _ assistance.
In some situations, those who are physically attractive are more likely to receive aid.  56  , in a field study researchers placed a completed application to graduate school in a telephone box at the airport. The application was ready to be    57   , but had apparently been "lost" . The photo attached to the application was sometimes that of a very    58    person and sometimes that of a less attractive person. The measure of helping was whether the individual who found the envelope actually mailed it or not. Results showed that people were more likely to 59   the application if the person in the photo was physically attractive.
The degree of _   60 between the potential helper and the person in need is also important.
For example, people are more likely to help a stranger who is from the same country rather than a foreigner. In one study, shoppers on a busy street in Scotland were more likely to help a person wearing a(n)   61    
T-shirt than a person wearing a T-shirt printed with offensive words.
 Whether a person receives help depends in part on the "worth" of the case. For example, shoppers in a supermarket were more likely to give someone  62 _ to buy milk rather than to buy cookies, probably because milk is thought more essential for   63   than cookies. Passengers on a New York subway were more likely to help a man who fell to the ground if he appeared to be    64    rather than drunk.
50. A. study     		B. way         		C. word        		D. college
【答案】A
【解析】In    53    these and other research findings,”可以看出这里实在作调查
研究。
51. A. hand      		B. arm         		C. face        		D. back
【答案】【解析】the victim was more likely to  52   aid if his face was spotless”知道是在脸上。
52. A. refuse      	B. beg          		C. lose         		D. receive

53. A. challenging   	B. recording     		C. understanding    	D. publishing
【答案】【解析】54. A. important      	B. possible   			C. amusing         	D. missing
【答案】【解析】55. A. seek      		B. deserve       		C. obtain        		D. accept
【答案】【解析】56. A. At first     		B. Above all       	C. In addition         D. For example
【答案】【解析】In some situations, those who are physically attractive are more likely to receive aid.在某种情况下,那些长得漂亮的人更有可能接受到帮助”提出了观点,接着就是举例证明。
57. A. printed     		B. mailed       		C. rewritten      		D. signed
【答案】【解析】The measure of helping was whether the individual who found the envelope actually mailed it or not.”可知答案。
58. A. talented    		B. good-looking   	C. helpful       		D. hard-working
【答案】【解析】a less attractive person”形成对比。
59. A. send in       	B. throw away       	C. fill out         	D. turn down
【答案】【解析】60. A. similarity     	B. friendship    		C. cooperation       	D. contact

61. A. expensive   	B. plain        		C. cheap        		D. strange
【答案】【解析】62. A. time      		B. instructions     	C. money        		D. chances
【答案】【解析】一个人是否得到帮助部分取决于‘值得不值得’ 的。to buy milk rather than to buy cookies,”可知是买东西,买东西当然要用钱。
63. A. shoppers   		B. research       		C. children       		D. health
【答案】【解析】64. A. talkative    	B. handsome         	C. calm         		D. sick
【答案】【解析】Section B
Directions: Read the following three passages.   Each passage is followed by several questions or unfinished statements.  For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D.Choose the one that fits best according to the information given in the passage you have just read.
(A)
Phil White has just returned from an 18,000-mile, around-the-world bicycle trip. White had two reasons for making this epic journey. First of all, he wanted to use the trip to raise money for charity, which he did. He raised £70,000 for the British charity, Oxfam. White's second reason for making the trip was to break the world record and become the fastest person to cycle around the world. He is still waiting to find out if he has broken the record or not.
White set off from Trafalgar Square, in London, on 19th June 2004 and was back 299 days later. He spent more than l,300 hours in the saddle(车座) and destroyed four sets of tyres and three bike chains. He had the adventure of his life crossing Europe, the Middle East, India, Asia, Australia, New Zealand and the Americas. Amazingly, he did all of this with absolutely no support team. No jeep carrying food, water and medicine. No doctor. Nothing! Just a bike and a very, very long road.
 The journey was lonely and desperate at times. He also had to fight his way across deserts, through jungles and over mountains. He cycled through heavy rains and temperatures of up to 45 degrees, all to help people in need. There were other dangers along the road. In Iran, he was chased by armed robbers and was lucky to escape with his life and the little money he had. The worst thing that happened to him was having to cycle into a headwind on a road that crosses the south of Australia. For l,000 kilometres he battled against the wind that was constantly pushing him. This part of the trip was slow, hard work and depressing, but he made it in the end. Now Mr.White is back and intends to write a book about his adventures.
65. When Phil White returned from his trip, he         .
A. broke the world record               		B. collected money for Oxfam
C. destroyed several bikes             		D. travelled about l,300 hours
【答案】【解析】He raised £70,000 for the British charity, Oxfam.”直接得到答案。
66. What does the word "epic" in Paragraph l most probably mean?
A. Very slow but exciting.             		B. Very long and difficult.
C. Very smooth but tiring.               		D. Very lonely and depressing.

的“孤独和压抑”只是旅途中感觉的一部分并非全部。
67. During his journey around the world, Phil White _        .
A. fought heroically against robbers in Iran		B. experienced the extremes of heat and cold
C. managed to ride against the wind in Australia	D. had a team of people who travelled with him

68. Which of the following words can best describe Phil White?
A. Imaginative.    		B. Patriotic.   		C. Modest.       	D. Determined.
【答案】【解析】Phil White终于成功完成这次漫长、艰难而又危险的旅程,说明他意志非常坚定。
(B)
The value-packed, all-inclusive
sight-seeing package that
combines the best of Sydney's
harbour, city, bay and beach
highlights.


A SydneyPass gives you unlimited and flexible travel on the Explorer Buses: the 'red' Sydney Explorer shows you around our exciting city sights while the 'blue' Bondi Explorer visits Sydney Harbour bays and famous beaches. Take to the water on one of three magnificent daily harbour cruises(游船). You can also travel free on regular Sydney Buses, Sydney Ferries or CityRail services (limited area), so you can go to every corner of this beautiful city.
Imagine browsing at Darling Harbour, sampling the famous seafood at Watsons Bay or enjoying the city lights on an evening ferry cruise. The possibilities and plans are endless with a SydneyPass. Wherever you decide to go, remember that bookings are not required on any of our services so tickets are treated on a first in, first seated basis.
SydneyPasses are available for 3, 5 or 7 days for use over a 7 calendar day period. With a 3 or 5 day pass you choose on which days out of the 7 you want to use it. All SydneyPasses include a free Airport Express inward trip before starting your 3, 5 or 7 days, and Lhe return trip is valid (育效的) for 2 months from the first day your ticket was used.
SydneyPass Fares

*A child is defined as anyone from the ages of 4 years to under 6 years. Children under 4 years travel free.
**A family is defined as 2 adults and any number of children from 4 to under 16 years of age from the same family.
69. A SydneyPass doesn’t offer unlimited rides on      
A. the Explorer Buses   					B. the harbour cruises		
C. regular Sydney Buses					D. CityRail services
【答案】【解析】CityRail services (limited area)”可知是有限的区域。
70. With a SydneyPass, a traveller can       _.
A. save fares from and to the airport      	B. take the Sydney Explorer to beaches
C. enjoy the famous seafood for free  		D. reserve seats easily in a restaurant
【答案】【解析】All SydneyPasses include a free Airport Express”可知到机场是免费的。
71. If 5-day tickets were to be recommended to a mother who travelled with her colleague and her children, aged 
3, 6 and 10, what would the lowest cost be?
A. $225.      		B. $300.     			C. $360.  		D. $420.
 (C)
Researchers in the psychology department at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) have discovered a major difference in the way men and women respond to stress. This difference may explain why men are more likely to suffer from stress-related disorders.
Until now, psychological research has maintained that both men and women have the same "fight-or-flight" reaction to stress. In other words, individuals either react with aggressive behavior, such as verbal or physical conflict ("fight"), or they react by withdrawing from the stressful situation ("flight"). However, the UCLA research team found that men and women have quite different biological and behavioral responses to stress. While men often react to stress in the fight-or-flight response, women often have another kind of reaction which could be called "tend and befriend." That is, they often react to stressful conditions by protecting and nurturing their young ("tend"), and by looking for social contact and support from others - especially other females('befriend").
Scientists have long known that in the fight-or- flight reaction to stress, an important role is played by certain hormones(澈素) released by the body. The UCLA research team suggests that the female tend-or-befriend response is also based on a hormone. This hormone, called oxytocin, has been studied in the context of childbirth, but now it is being studied for its role in the response of both men and women to stress. The principal investigator, Dr. Shelley E. Taylor, explained that "animals and people with high levels of oxytocin are calmer, more relaxed, more social, and less anxious." While men also secrete(分泌) oxytocin, its effects are reduced by male hormones.
In terms of everyday behavior, the UCLA study found that women are far more likely than men to seek social contact when they are feeling stressed. They may phone relatives or friends, or ask directions if they are lost.
The study also showed how fathers and mothers responded differently when they came home to their family after a stressful day at work. The typical father wanted to be left alone to enjoy some peace and quiet. For a typical mother, coping with a bad day at work meant focusing her attention on her children and their needs.
The differences in responding to stress may explain the fact that women have lower frequency of stress-related disorders such as high blood pressure or aggressive behavior. The tend-and-befriend regulatory(调节的) system may protect women against stress, and this may explain why women on average live longer than men.
72. The UCLA study shows that in response to stress, men are more likely than women to           .
A. turn to friends for help     		B. solve a conflict calmly
C. find an escape from reality     		D. seek comfort from children


73. Which of the following is true about oxytocin according to the passage?
A. Men have the same level of oxytocin as women do.
B. Oxytocin used to be studied in both men and women.
C. Both animals and people have high levels of oxytocin.
D. Oxytocin has more of an effect on women than on men.
【答案】【解析】While men also secrete(分泌) oxytocin, its effects are reduced by male hormones.74. What can be learned from the passage?
A. Male hormones help build up the body's resistance to stress.
B. In a family a mother cares more about children than a father does.
C. Biological differences lead to different behavioral responses to stress.
D. The UCLA study was designed to confirm previous research findings.
【答案】【解析】75. Which of the following might be the best title of the passage?
 A. How men and women get over stress      
B. How men and women suffer from stress
C. How researchers overcome stress problems
D. How researchers handle stress-related disorders

Section C
Directions: Read the following text and choose the most suitable heading from A-F for each paragraph. There is one extra heading which you do not need.
A. When a child should learn to read
B. Why it is fun to teach a child reading
C. What if a child has reading problems
D. How you prepare a young child for reading
E. What is the best way to teach a child reading
F. Whether reading early promises later achievements
该题型都是考查考生归纳段落主旨大意的能力的。
76.                       
Learning to read early has become one of those indicators - in parents' minds at least – that their child is smart. In fact, reading early has very little to do with whether a child is successful academically. Research has shown that difficulty with reading is often due not to inferior intelligence but to differences in the developmental wiring of each individual child. In some cases, there are neurological problems and developmental lags that can be overcome with proper training.
【答案】【解析】In fact, reading early has very little to do with whether a child is successful academically.(事实上很早就学会阅读与孩子学业上是否成功几乎没有关系)”可知本段讨论的是很早就学会阅读是否以后就会成功。
77.                       
Traditionally, American schools teach children at age six, but many schools begin teaching informally in kindergarten and pre-kindergarten. If parents start too early to encourage reading,and a child does not immediately succeed, the parent has a hard time relaxing and letting the child go at his or her own pace.
【答案】【解析】78.                       
Over the years, research has proved that the use of both the “whole language" method and the "phonic" method works best for a child to master reading. While the whole language approach, which includes reading to children and getting them interested in both the activity of reading and the story they are reading, is helpful, phonics must be taught. Children must be taught that one of the squiggles they see is a "p" and another a "b". Getting the print off the page requires a different ability than being able to understand the meaning of what is written.
【答案】【解析】‘全语法’和‘语音法’79.                       
You can start developing the skills needed in reading at a very young age without putting any pressure on children. Besides reading to them, parents can start "ear training" their child by playing rhyme games. This develops the child's ability to recognize different sounds. In reading to children, parents also can point to words as they go, teaching the child that the funny lines on the page are the words you are saying. All this should be a fun activity.
【答案】D
【解析】‘训练耳力’80.                       
Once a child is in school, the learning of reading is inevitably more serious. For children who have some kind of reading difficulty, you must get a professional diagnosis. While the teacher might say the child is merely disinterested but will get over it, disinterest or poor performance in reading can stem from a number of things, some being very specific learning disabilities that can be identified and worked on. But it is very tricky for parents to deal with their own child's learning disabilities.

Section D
Directions: Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words.
While contact between adolescents (between the ages of fifteen and nineteen) and their peers (同龄人) is a universal characteristic of all cultures, the nature and the degree of such contact vary a great deal. In American contemporary society, adolescents spend much more time with their peers than with younger children or adults.
This pattern of age segregation(隔离) in American society did not become usual until the beginning of the industrialized society. Changes in the workplace separated children from adults, with adults working and children attending school. The dramatic increase of mothers in the workplace has further contributed to the reduction in the amount of time adolescents spend with adults. School reform efforts during the nineteenth century, which resulted in age-segregated schools and grades, have reduced the amount of time adolescents spend with younger children. Finally, the changes in population are considered a factor that may have contributed to the emergence of adolescent peer culture. From 1955 t0 1975, the adolescent population increased dramatically, from 11 percent t0 20.9 percent. This increase in the number of adolescents might be a contributing factor to the increase in adolescent peer culture in terms of growth in size.
Research supports the view that adolescents spend a great deal of time with their peers. Reed Larson and his colleagues examined adolescents' daily activities and found that they spend more time talking to their friends than engaging in any other activity. In a typical week, high school students will spend twice as much time with their peers as with adults. This gradual withdrawal from adults begins in early adolescence. Ln sixth grade, adults (excluding parents) account for only 25 percent of adolescent social networks. Another important characteristic of  adolescent peer culture is its increasingly autonomous (自治的) function.While childhood peer groups are conducted under the close supervision of parents, adolescent peer groups typically make an effort to escape adult supervision and usually succeed in doing so.
(Note: Answer t.he questions or complete the statements in NO MORE THAN EIGHT WORDS.)
81."This pattern of age segregation" refers to the phenomenon that adolescents segregate themselves from        
【答案】【解析】adolescents spend much more time with their peers than with younger children or 
adults.”可知青少年会花更多的时间和同龄人在一起,而不是比还小的孩子或成人。
82.Besides changes in the workplace,                  are the other two factors contributing to adolescent peer culture.

83.When do adolescents start to spend less time with adults?
【答案】adolescence
【解析】This gradual withdrawal from adults begins in early adolescence.”可以推知答案。
84.How do adolescent peer groups differ from childhood peer groups?
【答案】autonomous.
【解析】While childhood peer groups are conducted under the close supervision of parents, adolescent peer groups typically make an effort to escape adult supervision and usually succeed in doing so.”可以推知答案。
第II卷  (共45分)
I.Translation
Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the words given in the brackets.
1.她五年前开始拉小提琴。(play)【答案】【解析】the的,第二个就是时态,可以使用现

2.由于天气恶劣,航班延误了好几个小时。(owing)【答案】weather, the flight was delayed for a couple of hours.
【解析】(Owing to 的用法)。
3.每位设计师都希望自己的作品能经受时间的考验。(stand)【答案】【解析】stand the test of time
4.能否抵
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